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Beardsley and Beardsley, 
Architects/Engineers , 

Cornell University Library 
DS 668.B27 

A history of the Philippines, 

3 1924 008 594 933 

Q /^ ^'^--,.*^ 





The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 




JUL 2 8 








General Superintendent of Public Instruction for tlie Pliilippine Islands 





Entered at Stationers' Hall, London 

Barrows, Philippines 

w. p. I 


This book has been prepared at the suggestion of the 
educational authorities for pupils in the public high schools 
of the Philippines, as an introduction to the history of 
their country. Its preparation occupied about two years, 
while the author was busily engaged in other duties, — 
much of it being written while he was traveling or ex- 
ploring in diiferent parts of the Archipelago. No pre- 
tensions are made to an exhaustive character for the book. 
For the writer, as well as for the pupil for whom it is 
intended, it is an introduction into the study of the 
history of Malaysia. 

Considerable difficulty has been experienced in securing 
the necessary historical sources, but it is believed that the 
principal ones have been read. The author is greatly 
indebted to the Honorable Dr. Pardo de Tavera for the 
use of rare volumes from his library, and he wishes to 
acknowledge also the kindness of Mr. Manuel Yriarte, 
Chief of the Bureau of Archives, for permission to exam- 
ine public documents. The occasional reprints of the old 
Philippine histories have, however, been used more fre- 
quently than the original editions. The splendid series 
of reprinted works on the Philippines, promised by Miss 
Blair and Mr. Robertson, was not begun in time to be 
used in the preparation of this book. The appearance of 
this series will make easy a path which the present writer 


has found comparatively difficult, and will open the way 
for an incomparably better History of the Philippines than 
has ever yet been made. 

The drawings of ethnographic subjects, which partly 
illustrate this book, were made from objects in the Philip- 
pine Museum by Mr. Anselmo Espiritu, a teacher in the 
public schools of Manila. They are very accurate. 

Above every one else, in writing this book, the author 
is under obligations to his wife, without whose constant 
help and encouragement it could not have been written. 

Manila, Philippine Islands, 
March Isx, 1903. 



I. The Philippines as a Subject for Historical Study . 9 

II. The Peoples of the Philippines 25 

III. Europe and the Far East about 1400 A.B 42 

IV. The Great Geographical DiscoYeries 61 

V. Filipino People Before the Arrival of the Spaniards 88 

VI. The Spanish Soldier and the Spanish Missionary . . 108 

VII. Period of Conquest and Settlement, 1565-1600 . . 125 

VIII. The Philippines Three Hundred Years Ago . . . 156 

IX. The Dutch and Moro Wars, 1600-1663 . . . 187 

X. A Century of Obscurity and Decline, 163S-1762 . . . 212 

XI. The Philippines During the Period of European Revo- 

lution, 1762-1837 231 

XII. Progress and Revolution, 1837-1807 . . 259 

XIII. America and the Philippines . . . 287 

Appendix .... . . 321 

Index . 325 




Philippine Islands .... . 6, 7 

Countries and Peoples of Malaysia ... , , . . 26, 27 

Races and Tribes of the Philippines ... .... .30 

Tlie Spread of Mohammedanism 39 

Europe about 1400 A.D 44 

Routes of Trade to the Far East ... .... , . 50 

The Countries of the Far East . 58 

Restoration of Tosoanelli's Map . . .69 

Early Spanish Discoveries in the Philippines . . ... 77 

The New World and the Indies as divided between Spain and 

Portugal 85 

Conquest and Settlement by the Spauiai'ds in the Philippines, 

1505-1-590 124 

Straits of Manila . . .* . ... . 183 

The City of Manila 134 

Luzon 158, 169 

Mindanao, Visayas, and Paragua 288, 289 

American Campaigns in Northern Luzon 302 






Purpose of this Book. — This book has been written for 
the young men and yoimg women of the Philippines. It 
is intended to introduce them into the history of their 
own island coimtry. The subject of Philippine history is 
much broader and more splendid than the size and char- 
acter of this little book reveal. Many subjects have only 
been briefly touched upon, and there are many sources of 
information, old histories, letters and official documents, 
which the writer had not time and opportunity to study 
in the preparation of this work. It is not too soon, how- 
ever, to present a history of the Philippines, even though 
imperfectly written, to the Philippine people themselves; 
and if this book serves to direct young men and young 
women to a study of the history of their own island coun- 
try, it will have fulfilled its purpose. 

The Development of the Philippines and of Japan. — In 
many ways the next decade of the history of the Philip- 
pine Islands may resemble the splendid development of 
the neighboring country of Japan. Both countries have 
in past times been isolated more or less from the fife and 
thought of the modern world. Both are now open to the 
full current of human affairs. Both countries promise to 
play an important part in the politics and commerce of 


the Far East. Geographically, the Philippines occupy the 
more central and influential position, and the success of 
the institutions of the Philippines may react upon the 
countries of southeastern Asia and Malaysia to an extent 
that we cannot appreciate or foresee. Japan, by reason 
of her larger population, the greater industry of her people, 
a more orderly social life, and devoted public spirit, is at 
the present time far in the lead. 

The Philippines. — But the Philippines possess certain 
advantages which, in the course of some years, may tell 
strongly in her favor. There are greater natural resotu-ces, 
a richer soil, and more tillable ground. The population, 
while not large, is increasing rapidly, more rapidly, in fact, 
than the population of Japan or of Java. And in the 
character of her institutions the Philippines have certain 
advantages. The position of woman, while so unfortunate 
in Japan, as in China and nearly all eastern countries, in 
the Philippines is most fortunate, and is certain to tell 
effectually upon the advancement of the race in competi- 
tion with other eastern civilizations. The fact that Chris- 
tianity is the established religion of the people makes 
possible a sympathy and imderstandtng between the Phil- 
ippines and western coimtries. 

Japan. — Yet there are many lessons which Japan can 
teach the Philippines, and one of these is of the advantages 
and rewards of fearless and thorough study. Fifty years 
ago, Japan, which had rigorously excluded all intercourse 
with foreign nations, was forced to open its doors by an 
American fleet under Commodore Perry. At that time 
the Japanese knew nothmg of western history, and had no 
knowledge of modern science. Their contact with the 
Americans and other foreigners revealed to them the in- 
feriority of their knowledge. The leaders of the country 


awoke to the necessity of a study of western countries 
and their great progress, especially in government and in 
the sciences. 

Japan had at her service a special class of people known 
as the samurai, who, in the life of Old Japan, were the 
free soldiers of the feudal nobility, and who were not only 
the fighters of Japan, but the students and scholars as 
well. The young men of this samurai class threw them- 
selves earnestly and devotedly into the study of the great 
fields of Imowledge, which had previously been unknown 
to the Japanese. At great sacrifice many of them went 
abroad to other lands, in order to study in foreign uni- 
versities. Numbers of them went to the United States, 
frequently working as servants in college towns in order 
to procure the means for the pursuit of their education. 

The Japanese Government in every way began to adopt 
measures for the transformation of the Icnowledge of the 
people. Schools were opened, laboratories established, and 
great numbers of scientific and historical books were trans- 
lated into Japanese. A public school system was organized, 
and finally a university was established. The Government 
sent abroad many young men to study in almost every 
branch of knowledge and to return to the service of the 
people. The manufacturers of Japan studied and adopted 
western machinery and modern methods of production. 
The government itself underwent revolution and reorgani- 
zation upon lines more liberal to the people and more 
favorable to the national spirit of the country. The 
result has been the transformation, in less than fifty years, 
of what was formerly an isolated and ignorant country. 

The Lesson- for the Filipinos. — Th\s is the great 
lesson which Japan teaches the Philippines. If there is 
to be transformation here, with a constant growth of 


knowledge and advancement, and an elevation of the 
character of the people as a whole, there must be a cour- 
ageous and imf altering search for the truth: and the young 
men and young women of the Philippines must seek the 
advantages of education, not for themselves, but for the 
benefit of their people and their land; not to gain for 
themselves a selfish position of social and economic ad- 
vantage over the poor and less educated Filipinos, but in 
order that, having gained these advantages for themselves, 
they may in turn give them to their less fortunate coim- 
trymen. The young Fihpino, man or woman, must learn 
the lessons of truthfulness, courage, and unselfishness, and 
in all of his gaining of knowledge, and in his use of it as 
well, he must practice these virtues, or his learning will 
be an evil to his land and not a blessing. 

The aim of this book is to help him to imderstand, first 
of all, the place that the Philippines occupy in the modem 
history of nations, so that he may understand how far 
and from what beginnings the Filipino people have pro- 
gressed, toward what things the world outside has itself 
moved during this time, and what place and opportunities 
the FiUpinos, as a people, may seek for in the future. 

The Meaning of History. — History, as it is written and 
understood, comprises many centuries of human life and 
achievement, and we must begin our study by discussing 
a little what history means. Men may live for thousands 
of years without having a life that may be called his- 
torical; for history is formed only where there are credible 
written records of events. Until we have these records, 
we have no ground for historical study, JDut leave the 
field to another study, which we call Archeology, or Pre- 
historic Culture. 

Historical Races. — Thus there are great races which 


have no history, for they have left no records. Either the 
people could not write, or their writings have been de- 
stroyed, or they told nothing about the life of the people. 
The history of these races began only with the coming of 
a historical, or more advanced race among them. 

Thus, the history of the black, or negro, race begins 
only with the exploration of Africa by the white race, 
and the history of the American Indians, except perhaps 
of those of Peru and Mexico, begins only with the white 
man's conquest of America. The white, or European, race 
is, above all others, the great historical race; but the yel- 
low race, represented by the Chinese, has also a historical 
Ufe and development, beginning many centuries before the 
birth of Christ. 

The European Race. — For thousands of years the 
white race was confined to the countries bordering the 
Mediterranean Sea. It had but little contact with other 
races of men and almost no knowledge of countries beyond 
the Mediterranean shores. The great continents of Amer- 
ica and Australia and the beautiful island-world of the 
Pacific and Indian oceans were scarcely dreamed of. This 
was the status of the white race in Europe a little more 
than five hundred years ago. How different is the posi- 
tion of this race to-day! It has now explored nearly the 
entire globe. The white people have crossed every con- 
tinent and every sea. On every continent they have estab- 
lished colonies and over many countries their power. 

During these last five centuries, besides this spread of 
geographical discoveries, the mingling of all the races, and 
the founding of great colonies, has come also the develop- 
ment of scientific knowledge — great discoveries and in- 
ventions, such as the utilization of steam and electricity, 
which give to man such trememdous power over the 


material world. Very important changes have also marked 
the religious and political life of the race. Within these 
years came the Protestant revolt from the Roman Catho- 
lic Church, destroying in some degree the unity of Chris- 
tendom; and the great revolutions of Europe and America, 
estabhshing democratic and representative governments. 

The European Race and the Filipino People. — 
This expansion and progress of the Eiu"opean race early 
brought it into contact with the Filipino people, and the 
historical life of the Philippines dates from this meeting 
of the two races. Thus the history of the Philippines has 
become a part of the history of nations. During these 
centuries the people of these islands, subjects of a Euro- 
pean nation, have progressed in social life and govern- 
ment, in education and industries, in numbers, and in 
wealth. They have often been stirred by wars and revo- 
lutions, by centuries of piratical invasion, and fear of con- 
quest by foreign nations. But these dangers have now 
passed away. 

There is no longer fear of piratical ravage nor of foreign 
invasion, nor is there longer great danger of internal re- 
volt; for the Philippines are at the present time imder a 
government strong enough to defend them against other 
powers, to put down plunder and ravage, and one anxious 
and disposed to afford to the people such freedom of op- 
portimity, such advantages of government and life, that 
the incentive to internal revolution will no longer exist. 
Secure from external attack and rapidly progressing toward 
internal peace, the Philippines occupy a position most for- 
tunate among the peoples of the Far East. They have 
representative government, freedom of religion, and pub- 
lic education, and, what is more than all else to the aspir- 
ing or ambitious race or individual, freedom of opportunity. 


How History is Written. — One other thing should be 
explained here. Every child who reads this book should 
understand a httle how history is written. A most nat- 
ural inquiry to be made regarding any historical state- 
ment is, "How is this known?" And this is as proper a 
question for the school boy as for the statesman. The 
answer is, that history rests for its facts largely upon the 
written records made by people who either lived at the 
time these things took place, or so near to them that, by 
careful inquiry, they could learn accurately of these mat- 
ters and write them down in some form, so that we to-day 
can read their accounts, and at least know how these 
events appeared to men of the time. 

But not all that a man writes, or even puts in a book, 
of things he has seen and known, is infallibly accurate 
and free 'from error, partiahty, and untruthfulness. So 
the task of the historian is not merely to read and accept 
all the contemporary records, but he must also compare 
one account with another, weighing all that he can find, 
making due allowance for prejudice, and on his own part 
trying to reach a conclusion that shall be true. Of course, 
where records are few the task is difficult indeed, and, on 
the other hand, material may be so volimiinous as to 
occupy a writer a lifetime, and make it impossible for any 
one man completely to exhaust a subject. 

Historical Accounts of the Philippines. — For the Philip- 
pines we are so fortunate as to have many adequate 
sources of a reliable and attractive kind. In a few words 
some of these will be described. Nearly all exist in at 
least a few libraries in the Philippines, where they may 
sometime be consulted by the Filipino student, and many 
of them, at least in later editions, may be purchased by 
the student for his own possession and study. 


The Voyages of Discovery. — European discovery of 
the Philippines began with the great voyage of Magellan; 
and recounting this discovery of the islands, there is the 
priceless narrative of one of Magellan's company, Antonio 
Pigafetta. His book was written in Italian, but was first 
published in a French translation. The original copies 
made by Pigafetta have disappeared, but in 1800 a copy 
was discovered in the Ambrosian Library of Milan, Italy, 
and published. Translations into English and other lan- 
guages exist. It may be found in several collections of 
Voyages, and there is a good Spanish translation and edi- 
tion of recent date. {El Primer Viaje alrededor del 
Mundo, por Antonio Pigafetta, traducido por Dr. Carlos 
Amoretti y anotado por Manuel Walls y. Merino, Madrid, 
1899.) There are several other accoimts of Magellan's 
voyage; but Pigafetta's was the only one written by an 
eye-witness, and his descriptions of the Bisaya Islands, 
Cebu, Borneo, and the Moluccas are wonderfully interest- 
ing and accurate. 

There were several voyages of discovery between 
Magellan's time (1521) and Legaspi's time (1565). These 
include the expeditions of Loaisa, Saavedra, and Villalo- 
bos, and accounts of them are to be found in the great 
series of publications made by the Spanish Government 
and called Coleccion de documentos ineditos, and, in another 
series, Navarrete's Coleccion de los viajes y descubrimi- 

Spanish Occupation and Conquest. — As we come to 
the history of Spanish occupation and conquest of the 
Philippines, we find many interesting letters and reports 
sent by both soldiers and priests to the king, or to persons 
in Spain. The first complete book on the Philippines was 
written by a missionary about 1602, Father Predo 
Chirino's Relacion de las Islas Filipinas, printed in Rome 


in 1604. This important and curious narrative is exceed- 
ingly rare, but a reprint, although rude and poor, was 
made in Manila in 1890, which is readily obtainable. The 
Belacion de las Islas Filipinas was followed in 1609 by 
the work of Judge Antonio de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas 
Filipinas. This very rare work was printed in Mexico. 
In 1890 a new edition was brought out by Dr. Jose Rizal, 
from the copy in the British Museum. There is also an 
English translation. 

These two works abound in curious and valuable infor- 
mation upon the Filipino people as they were at the time 
of the arrival of the Spaniards, as does also a later work, 
the Conquista de las Islas Filipinas, by Friar Gaspar de 
San Augustin, print(;d in Madrid in 1698. This latter is 
perhaps the most interesting and most important early 
work on the Philippine Islands. 

As we shall see, the history of the Philippines is closely 
connected with that of the East Indian Spice Islands. 
When the Spanish forces took the rich island of Temate 
in 1606, the triumph was commemorated by a volume, 
finely written, though not free from mistakes, the Covr 
quista de las Islas Moluccas, by Leonardo de Argensola, 
Madrid, 1609. There is an old English translation, and 
also French and Dutch translations. 

To no other religious order do we owe so much historical 
information as to the Jesuits. The scholarship and liter- 
ary ability of the Company have always been high. Chi- 
rino was a Jesuit, as was also Father Francisco Colin, who 
wrote the Labor Evangelica, a narrative of the Jesuit mis- 
sions in the Philippines, China, and Japan, which was 
printed in Madrid in 1663. This history was continued 
years later by Father Murillo Velarde, who wrote what 
he called the Segunda Parte, the Historia de la Provincia 
de Filipinas de la Campania de Jesus, Manila, 1749. 


There is another notable Jesuit work to which we owe 
much of the early history of the great island of Mindanao : 
this is the Historia de Mindanao y Jolo, by Father Fran- 
cisco Combes. The year 1663 marked, as we shall see, an 
epoch in the relations between the Spaniards and the 
Mohammedan Malays. In that year the Spaniards aban- 
doned the fortress of Zamboanga, and retired from south- 
ern Mindanao. The Jesuits had been the missionaries in 
those parts of the southern archipelago, and they made 
vigorous protests against the abandonment of More terri- 
tory. One result of their efforts to secure the reoccupancy 
of these fortresses was the notable work mentioned above. 
It is the oldest and most important writing about the 
island and the inhabitants of Mindanao. It was printed 
in Madrid in 1667. A beautiful and exact edition was 
brought out a few years ago, by Retana. 

A Dominican missionary, Father Diego Aduarte, wrote 
a very important work, the Historia de la Provincia del 
Sando Rosario de la Orden de Predicadores en Filipinas, 
Japan y China, which was printed in Manila at the Col- 
lege of Santo Tomas in 1640. 

"We may also mention as containing a most interesting 
accotmt of the Philippines about the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, the famous work on China, by the Domini- 
can, Father Fernandez Navarrete, Tratados historicos, politi- 
cos, ethnicos, y religiosos de la Monarchia de China, Madrid, 
1767. Navarrete arrived in these islands in 1648, and was 
for a time a cura on the island of Mindoro. Later he was 
a missionary in China, and then Professor of Divinity in 
the University of Santo Tomas. His work is translated 
into English in Churchill's Collection of Voyages and Trav- 
els, London, 1744, setjond volume. 

The eighteenth century is rather barren of interesting 


historical matter. There was considerable activity in the 
production of grammars and dictionaries of the native 
languages, and more histories of the religious orders were 
also produced. These latter, while frequently filled with 
ssctarian matter, should not be overlooked. 

Between the years 1788 and 1792 was pubHshed the 
voluminous Historia General de Filipinas, in fourteen vol- 
umes, by the Recollect friar. Father Juan de la Concep- 
cion. The work aboimds in superfluous matter and 
trivial details, yet it is a copious source of information, a 
veritable mine of historical data, and is perhaps the best 
known and most frequently used work upon the Philip- 
pine Islands. There are a number of sets in the Philip- 
pines which can be consulted by the student. 

Some years after, and as a sort of protest against so 
extensive a treatment of history, the sane and admirable 
Augustinian, Father Joaquin Martinez de Zuniga, wrote 
his Historia de las Islas Filipinas, a volimie of about seven 
hundred pages. It was printed in Sampaloc, Manila, in 
1803. This writer is exceptional for his fairmindedness, 
his freedom from the narrow prejudices which have char- 
acterized most of the writers on the Philippines. His 
language is terse and spirited, and his volume is the most 
readable and, in many ways, the most valuable attempt 
at a history of the Philippines. His narrative closes with 
the English occupation of Manila in 1763. 

Recent Histories and Other Historical Materials. 
— The sources for the conditions and history of the islands 
during the last century differ somewhat from the preced- 
ing. The documentary sources in the form of public 
papers and reports are available, and there is a consider- 
able mass of pamphlets dealing with special questions in 
the PhiUppines. The publication of the official journal of 


the Government, the Gazeta de Manila, commenced in 
1861. It contains all acts of legislation, orders of the 
Governors, pastoral letters, and other official matters, 
down to the end of Spanish rule. 

A vast amount of material for the recent civil history 
of the islands exists in the Archives of the PhiHppines, at 
Manila, but these documents have been very httle ex- 
amined. Notable among these original documents is the 
series of Royal Cedulas, each bearing the signature of the 
King of Spain, " Yo, el Rey." They run back from, the last 
years of sovereignty to the commencement of the seven- 
teenth century. The early cedulas, on the estabhshment 
of Spanish rule, are said to have been carried away by the 
British army in 1763, and to be now in the British Museum. 

Of the archives of the Royal Audiencia at Manila, the 
series of judgments begins with one of 1603, which is 
signed by Antonia de Morga. From this date they ap- 
pear to be complete. The earliest records of the cases 
which came before this court that can be found, date 
from the beginning of the eighteenth century. 

Of modern historical writings mention must be made of 
the Historia de Filipinas, three volumes, 1887, by Montero 
y Vidal, and the publications of W. E. Retana. To the 
scholarship and enthusiasm of this last author much is 
owed. His work has been the republication of rare and 
important sources. His edition of Combes has already 
been mentioned, and there should also be mentioned, and 
if possible procured, his Archivo del Bibliofilo, four vol- 
umes, a collection of rare papers on the islands, of differ- 
ent dates; and his edition, the first ever published, of 
Zuniga's Estadismo de las Islas Filipinas, an incomparable 
survey of the islands made about 1800, by the priest and 
historian whose history was mentioned above. 


Accounts of Voyagers Who Visited the Philippines. 
— These references give some idea of the historical liter- 
ature of the Philippines. They comprise those works 
which should be chiefly consulted. There should not be 
omitted the numerous accounts of voyagers who have 
visited these islands from time to time, and who frequently 
give us very valuable information. The first of these are 
perhaps the English and Dutch freebooters, who prowled 
about these waters to waylay the richly laden galleons. 
One of these was Dampier, who, about 1690, visited the 
Ladrones and the Philippines. His New Voyage Around 
the World was published in 1697. There was also Anson, 
who in 1743 took the Spanish galleon off the coast of 
Samar, and whose voyage is described in a volmne pub- 
lished in 1745. There was an Italian physician, Carreri, 
who visited the islands in 1697, in the course of a voyage 
around the world, and who wrote an excellent description 
of the Philippines, which is printed in English translation 
in Churchill's Collection of Voyages. 

A French expedition visited the East between 1774 and 
1781, and the Commissioner, M. Sonnerat, has left a brief 
accoimt of the Spanish settlements in the islands as they 
then appeared. {Voyage aux Indes Orientates et h la 
Chine, Paris, 1782, Vol. 3.) 

There are a number of travellers' accounts written in 
the last century, of which may be mentioned Sir John 
Bowring's Visit to the Philippine Islands, 1859, and Jagor's 
Reisen in der Philippinen, travels in the year 1859 and 
1860, which has received translation into both English 
and Spanish. 

Bibliographies. — For the historical student a biblio- 
graphical guide is necessary. Such a volume was brought 
out in 1898, by Retana, Catalogo abreviado de la Biblioteca 


Filipina. It contains a catalogue of five thousand seven 
hundred and eighty works, pubhshed in or upon the 
Phihppines. A still more exact and useful bibliography has 
been prepared by the Honorable T. H. Pardo de Tavera, 
Biblioteca Filipina, and is published by the United States 

It is lamentable that the Philippines Government pos- 
sesses no library of works on the Archipelago. The foun- 
dation of such an institution seems to have been quite 
neglected by the Spanish Government, and works on the 
Philippines are scarcely to be found, except as they exist 
in private collections. The largest of these is said to be 
that of the Compania General de Tabacos, at Barcelona, 
which has also recently possessed itself of the splendid 
library of Retana. In Manila the Honorable Dr. Pardo 
de Tavera possesses the only notable library in the islands. 

Since the above was written the Phihppines Govern- 
ment has commenced the collection of historic works in 
the Philippines, and a talented young Filipino scholar, 
Mr. Zulueta, has gone to Spain for extensive search, both 
of archives and libraries, in order to enrich the public 
collection in the Philippines. 

The publication of a very extensive series of sources of 
Philippine history has also been begun by the Arthur H. 
Clark Company in the United States, under the editorship 
of Miss E. H. Blair and Mr. J. A. Robertson. The series 
will embrace fifty-five volumes, and will contain in English 
translations all available historical material on the Philip- 
pines, from the age of discovery to the nineteenth centurj'. 
This notable collection will place within the reach of the 
student all the important sources of his country's history 
and will make possible a more extensive and accurate 
writing of the history of the islands than has ever before 
been possible. 


In addition to the published works, there repose nu- 
merous unstudied documents of Philippine history in the 
the Archives of the Indies at Seville. 

Historical Work for the Filipino Student. — After read- 
ing this book, or a similar introductory history, the stu- 
dent should procure, one by one, as many as he can of 
the volumes which have been briefly described above, and, 
by careful reading and patient thought, try to round out 
the story of his country and learn the lessons of the 
history of his people. He will find it a study that will 
stimulate his thought and strengthen his judgment; but 
always he must search for the truth, even though the 
truth is sometimes humiliating and sad. If there are re- 
regrettable passages in our own lives, we cannot find 
either happiness or improvement in trying to deny to 
ourselves that we have done wrong, and so conceal and 
minimize our error. So if there are dark places in the 
history of our land and people, we must not obscure the 
truth in the mistaken belief that we are defending our 
people's honor, for, by trying to conceal the fact and ex- 
cuse the fault, we only add to the shame. It is by frank 
acknowledgment and clear depiction of previous errors 
that the country's honor will be protected now and in 
the future. 

Very interesting and important historical work can be 
done by the Filipino student in his own town or province. 
The public and parish records have in many towns suf- 
fered neglect or destruction. In all possible cases these 
documents should be gathered up and cared for. For many 
things, they are worthy of study. They can show the 
growth of population, the dates of erection of the public 
buildings, the former system of government, and social 

This is a work in which the patriotism of every young 


man and woman can find an expression. Many sites 
throughout the islands are notable for the historic occur- 
rences which they witnessed. These should be suitably 
marked with tablets or monuments, and the exact facts of 
the events that took place should be carefully collected, 
and put in writing. Towns and provinces should form 
public libraries containing, among other works, books on 
the Philippines; and it should be a matter of pride to the 
young Filipino scholar to build up such local institutions, 
and to educate his townsmen in their use and appreciation. 
But throughout such studies the student should remem- 
ber that his town or locality is of less importance, from a 
patriotic standpoint, than his country as a whole; that the 
interests of one section should never be placed above 
those of the Archipelago; and that, while his first and fore- 
most duty is to his town and to his people, among whom 
he was born and nurtured, he owes a greater obligation to 
his whole coimtry and people, embracing many different 
islands and different tongues, and to the great Govern- 
ment which holds and protects the Philippine Islands, and 
which is making possible the free development of its 


The Study of Ethnology. — The study of races and peo- 
ples forms a separate science from history, and is known 
as ethnology, or the science of races. Ethnology informs 
us how and where the different races of mankind origi- 
nated. It explains the relationships between the races as 
well as the differences of mind, of body, and of mode of 
living which different people exhibit. 

All such knowledge is of great assistance to the states- 
man as he deals with the affairs of his own people and of 
other peoples, and it helps private individuals of different 
races to understand one another and to treat each other 
with due respect, kindness, and sympathy. Inasmuch, 
too, as the modern history which we are studying deals 
with many different peoples of different origin and race, 
and as much of our history turns upon these differences, 
we must look for a little at the ethnology of the Philip- 

The Negritos. — Physival Characteristics. — The great 
majority of the natives of our islands belong to what is 
usually called the Malayan race, or the Oceanic Mongols. 
There is, however, one interesting little race scattered 
over the Philippines, which certainly has no relationship 
at all with Malayans. These little people are called by 
the Tagdlog, "Aeta" or "Ita." The Spaniards, when 
they arrived, called them "Negritos," or "little negroes," 
the name by which they are best known. Since they 




110 Long-itude 

East 120 









8U0 1000 

Mohammedan Malays {Javanese. Bugis, Sulus, etc.) 
Filipinos {Christian) 
Primitive Malayans {Pagan) 
t0M^i^4 ^^^lanesians or Papuans , 

I Negritos ^ 



were without question the first inhabitants of these islands 
of whom we have any knowledge, we shall speak of them 
at once. 

They are among the very smallest peoples in the world, 
the average height of the men being about 145 centi- 
meters, or the height of an American boy of twelve 
years ; the women are correspondingly smaller. They 
have such dark-brown skins that many people suppose 
them to be quite black ; their hair is very wooly or kinky, 
and forms thick mats upon their heads. In spite of these 
peculiarities, they are not unattractive in appearance. 
Their eyes are large and of a fine brown color, their fea- 
tures are quite regular, and their little bodies often beau- 
tifully shaped. 

The appearance of these little savages excited the 
attention of the first Spaniards, and there are many early 
accounts of them. Padre Chirino, who went as a mis- 
sionary in 1592 to Panay, begins the narrative of his labors 
in that island as follows : " Among the Bisayas, there are 
also sortie Negroes. They are less black and ugly than 
those of Guinea, and they are much smaller and weaker, 
but their hair and beard are just the same. They are 
much more barbarous and wild than the Bisayas and 
other Filipinos, for they have neither houses nor any fixed 
sites for dwelling. They neither plant nor reap, but live 
like wild beasts, wandering with their wives and children 
through the mountains, almost naked. They hunt the 
deer and wild boar, and when they kill one they stop 
right there until all the flesh is consumed. Of property 
they have nothing except the bow and arrow." ^ 

Manners and Customs. ^The Negritos still have this 
wild, timid character, and few have ever been truly civ- 
' Relacinn de las Islas Filipinas, 2d ed., p. 38. 


ilized in spite of the efforts of some of the Spanish mis- 
sionaries. They still roam through the mountains, seldom 
building houses, but making simply a little wall and roof 
of brush to keep off the wind and rain. They kill deer, 
wild pigs, monkeys, and birds, and in himting they are 
very expert; but their principal food is wild roots and 
tubers, which they roast in ashes. Frequently in travel- 
ing through the mountains, although one may see nothing 
of these timid little folk, he will see many large, freshly 
dug holes from each of which they have taken out a root. 

The Negritos ornament their bodies by making little 
rows of cuts on the breast, back, and arms, and leaving 
the scars in ornamental patterns; and some of them also 
file their front teeth to points. In their hair they wear 
bamboo combs with long plumes of hair or of the feathers 
of the mountain cock. They have curious dances, and 
ceremonies for marriage and for death. 

Distribution. — The Negritos have retired from many 
places where they lived when the Spaniards first arrived, 
but there are still several thousand in Luzon, especially in 
the Cordillera Zambales, on the Pacific coast, and in the 
Sierra Madre range; and in the interior of Panay, Negros, 
Tablas, and in Surigao of Mindanao. 

Relation of the JV'egritos to Other Bwarfs of the 
World. — Although the Negritos have had very Uttle ef- 
fect on the history of the Philippines, they are of much 
interest as a race to scientists, and we can not help asking. 
Whence came these curious little people, and what does 
their presence here signify? While science can not at 
present fully answer these questions, what we do actually 
know about these pygmies is full of interest. 

The Aetas of the Philippines are not the only black 
dwarfs in the world. A similar little people, who must 



T Zo" 100 150 3)0 


"ll^O ^ 3&0 

^^/^ FUiptnon (^OirietiaTiixed Peoples) 
\primiHvc Malai/an Trihes {Pagarta) 
MoroB {Mohammedans) 

O I F I O 


Lonifitude 120 

East from 


124 Greenwich 


belong to the same race, live in the mountains and jungles 
of the Malay peninsula. On the Andaman Islands in the 
Indian Ocean, all the aboriginal inhabitants are similar 
pygmies, called "Mincopies." Some traces of their former 
existence are reported from many other places in the 
East Indies. 

Thus it may be that there was a time when these little 
men and women had much of this island-world quite to 
themselves, and their race stretched unbrokenly from the 
Philippines across Malacca to the Indian Ocean. As it 
would have been impossible for so feeble a people to 
force their way from one island to another after the 
arrival of the stronger races, who have now confined 
them to the mountainous interiors, we are obliged to 
believe that the Negritos were on the ground first, and 
that at one time they were more numerous. The Indian 
archipelago was then a world of black pygmies. It 
may be that they were even more extensive than this, 
for one of the most curious discoveries of modern times 
has been the finding of similar little blacks in the equa- 
torial forests of Africa. 

The Negritos must not be confused with the black or 
negro race of New Guinea or Melanesia, who are com- 
monly called Papuans; for those Negroes are of tall 
stature and belong with the true Negroes of Africa, 
though how the Negro race thus came to be formed of 
two so widely separated branches we do not know. 

The Malayan Race. — Origin of the Race. — It is 
thought that the Malayan race originated in southeastern 
Asia. From the mainland it spread down into the pen- 
insula and so scattered southward and eastward over 
the rich neighboring islands. Probably these early Ma- 
layans foimd the little Negritos in possession and slowly 


drove them backward, destroying them from many islands 
until they no longer exist except in the places we have 
already named. 

With the beginning of this migratory movement which 
carried them from one island to another of the great East 
Indian Archipelago, these early Malayans must have in- 
vented the boats and praos for which they are famed, and 
have become skillful sailors living much upon the sea. 

affect of the Migration. — Life for many generations, 
upon these islands, so warm, tropical, and fruitful, gradu- 
ually modified these emigrants from Asia, until they be- 
came in mind and body quite a different race from the 
Mongol inhabitants of the mainland. 

Characteristics. — The Malayan peoples are of a light- 
brown color, with a light yellowish undertone on some 
parts of the skin, with straight black hair, dark-brown 
eyes, and, though they are a small race in stature, they 
are finely formed, muscular, and active. The phys'cal 
type is nearly the same throughout all Malaysia, but the 
different peoples making up the race differ markedly from 
one another in culture. They are divided also by differ- 
ences in religion. There are many tribes which are pagan. 
On Bali and Lombok, little islands south of Java, the 
people are still Brahmin, like most inhabitants of India. 
In other parts of Malaysia they are Mohammedans, while 
in the Philippines alone they are mostly Christians. 

The "Wild Malayan Tribes. — Considering first the pagan 
or the wild Malayan peoples, we find that in the interior 
of the Malay Peninsula and of many of the islands, such 
as Sumatra, Borneo and the Celebes, there are wild Ma- 
layan tribes, who have come very little in contact with 
the successive civilizing changes that have passed over 
this archipelago. The true Malays call these folk " Orang 


benua," or "men of the country." Many are almost 
savages, some are cannibals, and others are headhunters 
like some of the Dyaks of Borneo. 

In, the Philippines, too, we find what is probably this 
same class of wild people living in the mountains. They are 
warlike, savage, and resist approach. Sometimes they eat 
human flesh as a ceremonial act, and some prize above all 
other trophies the heads of their enemies, which they cut 
from the body and preserve in their homes. It is probable 
that these tribes represent the earliest and rudest epoch 
of Malayan culture, and that these were the first of this 
race to arrive in the Philippines and dispute with- the Ne- 
gritos for the mastery of the soil. In such wild state of 
life, some of them, like the Manguianes of Mindoro, have 
continued to the present day. 

The Tribes in Northern Luzon. — In northern Luzon, 
in the great Cordillera Central, there are many of these primi- 
tive tribes. These people are preeminently mountaineers. 
They prefer the high, cold, and semi-arid crests and val- 
leys of the loftiest ranges. Here, with great industry, they 
have made gardens by the building of stone-walled ter- 
races on the slopes of the hills. Sometimes hundreds of 
these terraces can be counted in one valley, and they rise one 
above the other from the bottom of a cafion for several 
miles almost to the summit of a ridge. These terraced 
gardens are all under most careful irrigation. Water is 
carried for many miles by log flumes and ditches, to be dis- 
tributed over these little fields. The soil is carefully fer- 
tilized with the refuse of the villages. Two and frequently 
three crops are produced each year. Here we find un- 
doubtedly the most developed and most nearly scientific 
agriculture in the Philippines. They raise rice, cotton, 
tobacco, the taro, maize, and especially the camote, or 


sweet potato, which is their principal food. These people 
live in compact, well-built villages, frequently of several 
hundred houses. Some of these tribes, like the Igorrotes 
of Benguet and the Tinguianes of Abra, are peaceable as 
well as industrious. In Benguet there are fine herds of 
cattle, much excellent coffee, and from time immemorial 
the Igorrotes here have mined gold. 

Besides these peaceful tribes there are in Bontoc, and 
in the northern parts of the Cordillera, many large tribes, 
with splendid mountain villages, who are nevertheless in a 
constant and dreadful state of war. Nearly every town 
is in feud with its neighbors, and the practice of taking 
heads leads to frequent murder and combat. A most 
curious tribe of persistent headhunters are the Ibilao, or 
Ilongotes, who live in the Caraballo Sur Mountains between 
Nueva Ecija and Nueva Vizcaya. 

On other islands of the Philippines there are similar 
wild tribes. On the island of Paragua there are the Tag- 
baniia and other savage folk. 

Characteristics of the Tribes of Mindanao. — In 
Mindanao, there are many more tribes. Three of these 
tribes, the Aetas, Mandaya, and Manobo, are on the eastern 
coast and around Mount Apo. In Western Mindanao, 
there is quite a large but scattered tribe called the Sub- 
anon. These people make clearings on the hillsides and 
support themselves by raising maize and mountain rice. 
They also raise hemp, and from the fiber they weave truly 
beautiful blankets and garments, artistically dyed in very 
curious patterns. These peoples are nearly all pagans, 
though a few are being gradually converted to Moham- 
medanism, and some to Christianity. The pagans occa- 
sionally practice the revolting rites of human sacrifice and 
ceremonial cannibalism. 


The Civilized Malayan Peoples. — Their Later Arrival. 
— At a later date than the arrival of these primitive 
Malayan tribes, there came to the Philippines others 
of a more developed culture and a higher order of intel- 
ligence. These peoples rapidly mastered the low country 
and the coasts of all the islands, driving into the interior 
the earlier comers and the aboriginal Negritos. These later 
arrivals, though all of one stock, differed considerably, 
and spoke different dialects belonging to one language 
family. They were the ancestors of the present civilized 
Filipino people. 

Distribution, of These Peoples. — All through the cen- 
tral islands, Panay, Negros, Leyte, Samar, Marinduque, 
and northern Min- 
danao, are the Bi- 
say-a, the largest of 
these peoples. At the 
southern extremity 
of Luzon, in the 
provinces of Sorso- 

gon and the Cama- Mindanao Beit of Bamboo Fiber. 

rines, are the Bicol. 

North of these, holding central Luzon, Batangas, Cavite, 
Manila, Laguna, Bataan, Bulacan, and Nueva Ecija, are 
the Tagalog, while the great plain of northern Luzon is 
occupied by the Pampango and Pangasinan. All the 
northwest coast is inhabited by the Ilocano, and the 
valley of the Cagayan by a people commonly called Caga- 
yanes, but whose dialect is Ibanag. In Nueva Vizcaj^a 
province, on the Batanes Islands and the Calamianes, 
there are other distinct branches of the Filipino people, 
but they are much smaller in numbers and less important 
than the tribes marked above. 



Importance of These Peoples. — They form politically 
and historically the Filipino people. They are the 
Filipinos whom the Spaniards ruled for more than three 
hundred years. All are converts to Christianity, and all 
have attained a somewhat similar stage of civilization. 

Early Contact of the Malays and Hindus. — These peo- 
ple at the time of their arrival in the Philippines were 
probably not only of a higher plane of intelligence than any 

Mindanao Brass Vessels. 

who had preceded them in the occupation of the islands, 
but they appear to have had the advantages of contact 
with a highly developed culture that had appeared in the 
eastern archipelago some centuries earlier. 

Early Civilization in India. — More than two thou- 
sand years ago, India produced a remarkable civili- 
zation. There were great cities of stone, magnificent 
palaces, a life of splendid luxury, and a highly organized 
social and political system. Writing, known as the San- 
skrit, had been developed, and a great literature of poetiy 


and philosophy produced. Two great religions, Brahmin- 
ism and Buddhism, arose, the latter still the dominant 
rehgion of Tibet, China, and Japan. The people who pro- 
duced this civilization are known as the Hindus. Fourteen 
or fifteen hundred years ago Hinduism spread over Burma, 
Siam, and Java. Great cities were erected with splendid 
temples and huge idols, the ruins of which still remain, 
though their magnificence has gone and they are covered 
to-day with the growth of the jungle. 

Influence of Hindu Culture on the Malayan Peoples. 
— This powerful civilization of the Hindus, established 
thus in Malaysia, greatly affected the Malayan people on 
these islands, as well as those who came to the Philip- 
pines. Many words in the Tag^log have been shown 
to have a Sanskrit origin, and the systems of writing 
which the Spaniards found in use among several of the 
Filipino peoples had certainly been developed from the 
alphabet then in use among these Hindu peoples of 

The Rise of Mohammedanism. — Mohammed. — A few 
hundred years later another great change, due 'to religious 
faith, came over the Malayan race, — a change which has 
had a great effect upon the history of the Philippines, and 
is still destined to modify events far into the future. This 
was the conversion to Mohammedanism. Of all the great 
religions of the world, Mohammedanism was the last to 
arise, and its career has in some ways been the most re- 
markable. Mohammed, its founder, was an Arab, born 
about 572 a.d. At that time Christianity was established 
entirely around the Mediterranean and throughout most 
of Em-ope, but Arabia was idolatrous. Mohammed was 
one of those great, prophetic souls which arise from time 
to time in the world's history. All he could learn from 


Hebrewism and Christianity, together with the result of 
his own thought and prayers, led him to the belief in one 
God, the Almighty, the Compassionate, the Merciful, who 
as he believed would win all men to His knowledge through 
the teachings of Mohammed himself. Thus inspired, Mo- 
hammed became a teacher or prophet, and by the end of 
his life he had won his people to his faith and inaugurated 
one of the greatest eras of conquest the world has seen. 

Spread of Mohaimnedanism to Africa and Europe. 
— The armies of Arabian horsemen, full of fanatical 
enthusiasm to convert the world to their faith, in a 
century's time wrested from Christendom all Judea, 
Syria, and Asia Minor, the sacred land where Jesus lived 
and taught, and the countries where Paul and the other 
apostles had first established Christianity. Thence they 
swept along the north -coast of Africa, bringing to an end all 
that survived of Roman power and religion, and by 720 
they had crossed into Europe and were in possession of 
Spain. For nearly the eight hundred years that followed, 
the Christian Spaniards fought to drive Mohammedanism 
from the peninsula, before they were successful. 

The Conversion of the Malayans to Mohammed- 
anism. — Not only did Mohammedanism move west- 
ward over Africa and Europe, it was carried eastward as 
well. Animated by their faith, the Arabs became the 
greatest sailors, explorers, merchants, and geographers of 
the age. They sailed from the Red Sea down the coast of 
Africa as far as Madagascar, and eastward to India, where 
they had settlements on both the Malabar and Coro- 
mandel coasts. Thence Arab missionaries brought their 
faith to Malaysia. 

At that time the true Malays, the tribe from which 
the common term "Malayan" has been derived, were a 


small people of Sumatra. At least as early as 1250 
they were converted to Mohammedanism, brought to them 
by these Arabian mis.sionaries, and under the impulse of 
this mighty faith they broke from their obscurity and 
commenced that great conquest and expansion that has 
diffused their power, language, and religion throughout 
the East Indies. 

Mohammedan Settlement in Borneo. — A powerful 
Mohammedan Malay settlement was estabhshed on the 
western coasts of Borneo certainly as early as 1400. The 
more primitive inhabitants, like the Dyaks, who were a 
tribe of the primitive Malayans, were defeated, and the 
possession of the coast largely taken from them. From 
this coast of Borneo came many of the adventurers 
who were traversing the seas of the Philippines when the 
Spaniards arrived. 

TTie Mohammedan Population of Mindanao and 
Jolo owes something certainly to this same Malay mi- 
gration which founded the colony of Borneo. But the 
Maguindanao and Illano Moros seem to be largely de- 
scendants of primitive tribes, such as the Manobo and 
Tiruray, who were converted to Mohanomedanism by Malay 
and Arab proselyters. The traditions of the Maguindanao 
Moros ascribe their conversion to Kabunsuan, a native of 
Johore, the son of an Arab father and Malay mother. He 
came to Maguindanao with a band of followers, and 
from him the datos of Maguindanao trace their lineage. 
Kabunsuan is supposed to be descended from Mohammed 
through his Arab father, Ali, and so the datos of Maguin- 
danao to the present day proudly believe that in their 
veins flows the blood of the Prophet. 

The Coming of the Spaniards. — Mohammedanism was 
still increasing in the Philippines when the Spaniards ar- 


rived. The Mohammedans already had a foothold on 
Manila Bay, and their gradual conquest of the archipelago 
was interrupted only by the coming of the Europeans. 
It is a strange historical occurrence that the Spaniards, 
having fought with the Mohammedans for nearly eight 
centuries for the possession of Spain, should have come 
westward around the globe to the Philippine Islands 
and there resumed the ancient conflict with them. Thus 
the Spaniards were the most determined opponents of 
Mohammedanism on both its western and eastern frontiers. 
The'r ancient foes who crossed into Spain from Morocco 
had been always known as "Mores" or "Moors," and 
quite naturally they gave to these new Mohammedan 
enemies the same title, and Moros they are called to the 
present day. 

Summary. — Such, then, are the elements which form 
the population of these islands, — a few thousands of the 
little Negritos; many wild mountain tribes of the primi- 
tive Malayans; a later immigration of Malayans of higher 
cultivation and possibilities than any that preceded them, 
who had been influenced by the Hinduism of Java and 
who have had in recent centuries an astonishing growth 
both in numbers and in culture; and last, the fierce 
Mohanamedan sea-rovers, the true Malays. 


The Mediaeval Period in Europe. — Length of the 
Middle Age. — By the Middle Ages we mean the cen- 
turies between 500 and 1300 a.u. This period begins with 
the fall of the Roman Empire and the looting of the 
Imperial City by the rude German tribes, and ends with 
the rise of a new literature, a new way of looking at the 
world in general, and a passion for discovery of every 

These eight hundred years had been centuries of cruel 
struggle, intellectual darkness, and social depression, but 
also of great religious devotion. Edward Gibbon, one of 
the greatest historians, speaks of this period as " the 
triimiph of barbarism and religion." 

The population of Europe was largely changed, during 
the first few centuries of the Christian Era, as the Roman 
Empire, that greatest political institution of all history, 
slowly decayed. New peoples of German or Teutonic 
origin came, fighting their way into western Europe and 
settling wherever the land attracted them. Thus Spain 
and Italy received the Goths; France, the Burgundians 
and Franks; England, the Saxons and Angles or English. 

These peoples were all fierce, warlike, free, unlettered 
barbarians. Fortunately, they were all converted to 
Christianity by Roman priests and missionaries. They 
embraced this faith with ardor, at the same time that 
other peoples and lands were being lost to Christendom. 
Thus it has resulted that the countries where Christianity 



arose and first established itself, are now no longer Chris- 
tian, and this religion, which had an Asiatic and Semitic 
origin, has become the distinguishing faith of the people 
of western Europe. For centuries the countries of Europe 
were fiercely raided and disturbed by pillaging and mur- 
dering hordes; by the Huns, who followed in the Germans 
from the East ; by the Northmen, cruel pirating seamen 
from Scandinavia; and, as we have already seen, by the 
Mohammedans, or Saracens as they were called, who 
came into central Europe by way of Spain. 

Character of the Life during this Period. — Feudalism. 
— Life was so beset with peril that independence or free- 
dom became impossible, and there was developed a so- 
ciety which has lasted almost down to the present time, 
and which we call Feudalism. The free but weak man 
gave up his freedom and his lands to some stronger man, 
who became his lord. He swore obedience to this lord, 
while the lord engaged to furnish him protection and gave 
him back his lands to hold as a "fief," both sharing in 
the product. This lord swore allegiance to some still 
more powerful man, or "overlord," and became his "vas- 
sal," pledged to follow him to war with a certain number 
of armed men; and this overlord, on his part, owed allegi- 
ance to the prince, who was, perhaps, a duke or bishop 
(bishops at this time were also feudal lords), or to the king 
or emperor. Thus were men united into large groups or 
nations for help or protection. There was little under- 
standing of love of country. Patriotism, as we feel it, 
was replaced by the passion of fidelity or allegiance to 
one's feudal superior. 

Disadvantages of Feudalism. — The great curse of this 
system was that the feudal lords possessed the power to 
make war upon one another, and so continuous were 


their jealousies and quarrelings that the land was never 
free from armed bands, who laid waste an opponent's coun- 
try, killing the miserable serfs who tilled the soil, and de- 
stroying their homes and cattle. 

There was little joy in life and no popular learning. 
If a man did not enjoy warfare, but one other life was 
open to him, and that was in the Church. War and 
religion were the pursuits of life, and it is no wonder 
that many of the noblest and best turned their backs 
upon a life that promised only fighting and bloodshed 
and, renouncing the world, became monks. Monasticism 
developed in Europe under such conditions as these, and 
so strong were the religious feelings of the age that at one 
time a third of the land of France was owned by the re- 
ligious orders. 

The Town. — The two typical institutions of the early 
Middle Age were the feudal castle, with its high stone 
walls and gloomy towers, with its fierce bands of warriors 
armed in mail and fighting on horseback with lance and 
sword, and the monastery, which represented inn, hospi- 
tal, and school. Gradually, however, a third structure 
appeared. This was the town. And it is to these mediae- 
val cities, with their busy trading life, their free citizen- 
ship, and their useful occupations, that the modern world 
owes much of its liberty and its intellectual light. 

The Renaissance. — Changes in Political Affairs: — 
By 1400, however, the Middle Age had nearly passed and 
a new life had appeared, a new epoch was in progress, 
which is called the Renaissance, which means " rebirth." 
In poHtical affairs the spirit of nationality had arisen, and 
feudalism was already declining. Men began to feel attach- 
ment to country, to king, and to fellow-citizens; and the 
national states, as we now know them, each with its 


naturally bounded territory, its common language, and its 
approximately common race, were appearing. 

France and England were, of these states, the two 
most advanced politically just previous to the fifteenth 
century. At this distant time they were still engaged in 
a struggle which lasted quite a century and is known as 
the Hmidred Years' War. In the end, England was forced 
to give up all her claims to territory on the continent, and 
the power of France was correspondingly increased. In 
France the monarchy (king and court) was becoming the 
supreme power in the land. The feudal nobles lost what 
power they had, while the common people gained nothing. 
In England, however, the fotmdations for a representa- 
tive government had been laid. The powers of legislation 
and government were divided between the English king 
and a Parliament. The Parliament was first called in 
1265 and consisted of two parts, — the Lords, represent- 
ing the nobility; and' the Commons, composed of persons 
chosen by the common people. 

Germany was divided into a mmiber of small princi- 
palities, — Saxony, Bavaria, Franconia, Bohemia, Austria, 
the Rhine principalities, and many others, — which united 
in a great assembly, or Diet, the head of which was 
some prince, chosen to be emperor. 

Italy was also divided. In the north, in the valley of the 
Po, or Lombardy, were the duchy of Milan and the Repub- 
lic of Venice ; south, on the western coast, were the Tuscan 
states, including the splendid city of Florence. Thence, 
stretching north and south across the peninsula, were 
states of the church, whose ruler was the pope, for until less 
than fifty years ago the pope was not only the head of the 
church but also a temporal ruler. Embracing the south- 
ern part of the peninsula was the principality of Naples. 


In the Spanish peninsula Christian states had arisen, 
— in the west, Portugal, in the center and east, Castile, 
Aragon, and Leon, from all of which the Mohammedans 
had been expelled. But they still held the southern parts 
of Spain, including the beautiful plain of Andalusia and 

The Mohammedans, in the centuries 'of their life in 
Spain, had developed an elegant and prosperous civiliza- 
tion. By means of irrigation and skillful planting, they 
had converted southern Spain into a garden. They were 
the most skillful agriculturists and breeders of horses and 
sheep in Europe, and they carried to perfection many fine 
arts, while knowledge and learning were nowhere further 
advanced than here. Through contact with this remark- 
able people the Christian Spaniards gained much. Un- 
fortunately, however, the spirit of religious intolerance was 
so strong, and the hatred engendered by the centuries of 
religious war was so violent, that in the end the Spaniard 
became imbued with so fierce a fanaticism that he has 
ever since appeared unable properly to appreciate or justly 
to treat any who differed from him in religious belief. 

The Conquests of the Mohammedans. — In the fif- 
teenth century, religious toleration was but little known 
in the world, and the people of the great Mohammedan 
faith still threatened to overwhelm Christian Europe. 
Since the first great conquests of Islam in the eighth cen- 
tury had been repulsed from central Europe, that faith had 
shown a wonderful power of winning its way. In the 
tenth century Asia Minor was invaded by hordes of Sel- 
juks, or Turks, who poured down from central Asia in 
conquering bands. These tribes had overthrown the 
Arab's power in Mesopotamia and Asia Minor only to 
become converts to his faith. With freshened zeal they 


hurled themselves upon the old Christian empire, which 
at Constantinople had survived the fall of the rest of the 
Roman world. 

The Crusades. — The Seljuk Turks had conquered most 
of Asia Minor, Syria, and the Holy Land. A great fear 
came over the people of Europe that the city of Constan- 
tinople would be captured and they, too, be overwhelmed 
by these new Mohammedan enemies. The passionate 
religious zeal of the Middle Age also roused the princes 
and knights of Europe to try to wrest from the infidel the 
Holy Land of Palestine, where were the birthplace of Chris- 
tianity and the site of the Sepulcher of Christ. Palestine 
was recovered and Christian states were established there, 
which lasted for over a hundred and eighty years. Then 
the Arab power revived and, operating from Egypt, finally 
retook Jerusalem and expelled the Christian from the 
Holy Land, to which he has never yet returned as a con- 

Effects of the Crusades. — These long, holy wars, or 
"Crusades," had a profound effect upon Europe. The 
rude Christian warrior from the west was astonished and 
delighted with the splendid and luxurious life which he 
met at Constantinople and the Arabian East. Even though 
he was a prince, his life at home was barren of comforts 
and beauty. Glass, linen, rugs, tapestries, silk, cotton, 
spices, and sugar were some of the things which the 
Franks and the Englishmen took home with them from 
the Holy Land. IDemand for these treasures of the East 
became irresistible, and trade between western Europe 
and the East grew rapidly. 

The Commercial Cities of Italy. — The cities of Italy de- 
veloped this commerce. They placed fleets upon the Medi- 
terranean. They carried the crusaders out and brought 


back the wares that Europe desired. In this way these 
cities grew and became very wealthy. On the west coast, 
where this trade began, were Xmalfi, Pisa, Genoa, and 
Florence, and on the east, at the head of the Adriatic, was 
Venice. The rivalry between these cities of Italy was 
very fierce. They fought and plundered one another, each 
striving to win a monopoly for itself of this invaluable 

Venice, finally, was victorious. Her location was very 
favorable. From her docks the wares could be carried 
easily and by the shortest routes up the Po River and 
thence into France or northward over the Alps to the 
Danube. In Bavaria grew up in this trade the splendid 
German cities of Augsburg and Nuremberg, which passed 
these goods on to the cities of the Rhine, and so down 
this most beautiful river to the coast. Here the towns of 
Flanders and of the Low Countries, or Holland, received 
them and passed them on again to England and eastward 
to the countries- of the Baltic. 

Development of Modern Language. — Thus commerce 
and trade grew up in Europe, and, with trade and city 
life, greater intelligence, learning, and independence. 
Education became more common, and the universities of 
Europe were thronged. Latin in the Middle Age had been 
the only language that was written by the learned class. 
Now the modem languages of Europe took their form and 
began to be used for literary purposes. Italian was the 
first to be so used by the great Dante, and in the same 
half-century the English poet Chaucer sang in the homely 
English tongue, and soon in France, Germany, and Spain 
national literatures appeared. With this went greater free- 
dom of expression. Authority began to have less weight. 

Men began to inquire into causes and effects, to doubt 

i\o !'■*«-, 

J^ >jf(s-*-ir^ 1 



certain things, to seek themselves for the truth, and so 
the Renaissance came. With it came a greater love for 
the beautiful, a greater joy in life, a fresh zest for the 
good of this world, a new passion for discovery, a thirst 
for adventure, and, it must also be confessed a new laxity 
of living and a new -greed for gold. Christian Europe was 
about to burst its narrow bounds. It could not be re- 
pressed nor confined to its old limitations. It could never 
turn backward. Of all the great changes which have come 
over life and thought, probably none are greater than 
those which saw the transition from the mediaeval to the 
modern world. 

Trade with the East. — Articles of Trade. — Now we 
must go back for a moment and pursue an old inquiry 
further. Whence came all these beautiful and inviting 
wares that had produced new tastes and passions in 
Europe? The Italian traders drew them from the Levant, 
but the Levant had not produced them. Neither pepper, 
spices, sugarcane, costly gems, nor rich silks, were pro- 
duced on the shores of the Mediterranean. 

Only the rich tropical countries of the East were capable 
of growing these rare plants, and up to that time of 
delivering to the delver many precious stones. India, 
the rich Malaysian archipelago, the kingdom of China, — 
these are the lands and islands which from time imme- 
morial have given up their treasures to be forwarded far 
and wide to amaze and delight the native of colder and 
less productive lands. 

Routes of Trade to the Far East. — Three old sail- 
ing and caravan routes connect the Mediterranean with 
the Far East. They are so old that we can not guess 
when men first used them. They were old in the days of 
Solomon and indeed very ancient when Alexander the 


Great conquered the East. One of these routes passed 
through the Black Sea, and across the Caspian Sea to 
Turkestan to those strange and romantic ancient cities, 
Bokhara and Samarkand. I'hence it ran northeasterly 
across Asia, entering China from the north. Another 
crossed Syria and went down through Mesopotamia to the 
Indian Ocean. A third began in Egypt and went through 
the Red Sea, passing along the coast of Arabia to India. 

All of these had been in use for centuries, but by the 
year 1400 two had been closed. A fresh immigration of 
Turks, the Ottomans, in the fourteenth century came 
down upon the scourged country of the Euphrates and 
Syria, and although these Turks also embraced Moham- 
medanism, their hostility closed the first two routes and 
commerce over them has never since been resumed. 

Venetian Monopoly of Trade. — Thus all interest 
centered upon the southern route. By treaty with the 
sultan or ruler of Egypt, Venice secured a monopoly of 
the products which came over this route. Goods from 
the East now came in fleets up the Red Sea, went through 
the hands of the sultan of Egypt, who collected a duty 
for them, and then were passed on to the ships of the 
wealthy Venetian merchant princes, who carried them 
throughout Europe. Although the object of intense jeal- 
ousy, it seemed impossible to wrest this monopoly from 
Venice. Her fleet was the strongest on the Mediterranean, 
and her rule extended along the Adriatic to the Grecian 
islands. All eager minds were bent upon the trade with 
the East, but no way was known, save that which now 
Venice had gained. 

Extent of Geographical Knowledge. — The Maps of 
this Period. — To realize how the problem looked to the 
sailor of Genoa or the merchant of Flanders at that time, 


we must understand how scanty and erroneous was the 
geographical knowledge of even the fifteenth century. It 
was believed that Jerusalem was the center of the world, 
a belief founded upon a biblical passage. The maps of 
this and earlier dates represent the earth in this way: 
In the center, Palestine, and beneath it the Mediterranean 
Sea, the only body of water which was well known; on 
the left side is Europe; on the right, Africa; and at the 
top, Asia — the last- two continents very indefinitely 
mapped. Around the whole was supposed to flow an 
ocean, beyond the first few miles of which it was perilous 
to proceed lest the ship be carried over the edge of the 
earth or encounter other perils. 

Ideas about the Earth. -^ The Greek philosophers be- 
fore the time of Christ had discovered that the world is a 
globe, or ball, and had even computed rudely its circum- 
ference. But in the Middle Ages this knowledge had 
been disputed and contradicted by a geographer named 
Cosmas, who held that the world was a vast plane, twice 
as long as it was broad and surrounded by an ocean. This 
belief was generally adopted by churchmen, who were the 
only scholars of the Middle Ages, and came to be the uni- 
versal belief of Christian Europe. 

The Renaissance revived the knowledge of the writ- 
ings of the old Greek geographers who had demonstrated 
the earth's shape to be roimd and had roughly calculated 
its size; but these writings did not have sufficient circula- 
tion in Europe to gain much acceptance among the Chris- 
tian cosmographers. The Arabs, however, after conquer- 
ing Egypt, Syria and northern Africa, translated into 
their own tongue the wisdom of the Greeks and became 
the best informed and most scientific geographers of the 
Middle Age, so that intercourse with the Arabs which 


began with the Crusades helped to acquaint Europe some- 
what with India and China. 

The Far East. — The Tartar Mongols. — Then in the 
thirteenth century all northern Asia and China fell under 
the power of the Tartar Mongols. Russia was overrun by 
them and western Europe threatened. At the Danube, 
however, this tide of Asiatic conquest stopped, and then 
a- long period when Europe came into diplomatic and 
commercial relations with these Mongols and through them 
learned something of China. 

Marco Polo Visits the Or eat Kaan. — Several Eu- 
ropeans visited the court of the Great Kaan, or Mongol 
king, and of one of them, Marco Polo, we must speak n 
particular. He was a Venetian, and when a young man 
started in 1271 with his father and uncle on a visit to 
the Great Kaan. They passed from Italy to Syria, across 
to Bagdad, and so up to Turkestan, where they saw the 
wonderful cities of this strange oasis, thence across the 
Pamirs and the Desert of Gobi to Lake Baikal, where the 
Kaan had his court. Here in the service of this prince 
Marco Polo spent over seventeen years. So valuable in- 
deed were his services that the Kaan would not permit 
him to return. Year after year he remained in the East. 
He traversed most of China, and was for a time " taotai," 
or magistrate, of the city of Yang Chan near the Yangtze 
River. He saw the amazing wonders of the East. He 
heard of " Zipangu," or Japan. He probably heard of 
the Philippines. 

Finally the opportunity came for the three Venetians 
to return. The Great Kaan had a relative who was a 
ruler of Persia, and ambassadors came from this ruler to 
secure a Mongol princess for him to marry. The dangers 
and hardships of the travel overland were considered too 


difficult for the delicate princess, and it was decided to 
send her by water. Marco Polo and his father and uncle 
were commissioned to accompany the expedition to 

History of Marco Polo's Travels. — They sailed from 
the port of Chin Cheu, probably near Amoy,^ in the year 
1292. They skirted the coasts of Cambodia and Siam 
and reached the eastern coasts of Sumatra, where they 
waited five months for the changing of the monsoon. 
Of the Malay people of Sumatra, as well as of these 
islands, their animals and productions, Marco Polo has 
left us most interesting and quite accurate accounts. The 
Malays on Sumatra were beginning to be converted to 
Mohammedanism, for Marco Polo says that many of 
them were "Saracens." He gained a good knowledge of 
the rich and mysterious Indian Isles, where the spices 
and flavorings grew. It was two years before the party, 
having crossed the Indian Ocean, reached Persia and 
the court of the Persian king. When they arrived they 
found that while they were making this long voyage the 
Persian king had died ; but they married the Mongol 
princess to his son, the young prince, who had succeeded 
him, and that did just as well. 

From Persia the Venetians crossed to Syria and thence 
sailed to Italy, and at last reached home after an ab- 
sence of twenty-six years. But Marco Polo's adventures 
did not end with his return to Venice. In a fierce sea 
fight between the Venetians and Genoese, he was made 

1 See Yule's Marco Polo for a discussion of this point and for the 
entire history of this great explorer, as well as a translation of his 
narrative. This book of Ser Marco Polo has been most critically edited 
with introduction and voluminous notes by the English scholar, Sir 
Henry Yule. In this edition the accounts of Marco Polo, covering so 
many countries and peoples of the Far East, can be studied. 


a prisoner and confined in Genoa. Here a fellow captive 
wrote down from Marco's own words the story of his 
eastern adventures, and this book we have to-day. It is 
a record of adventure, travel, and description, so wonder- 
ful that for years it was doubted and its accuracy 
disbelieved. But since, in our own time, men have been 
able to traverse again the routes over which Marco Polo 
passed, fact after fact has been established, quite as he 
truthfully stated them centuries ago. To have been the 
first European to make this mighty circuit of travel is 
certainly a strong title to enduring fame. 

Countries of the Far East. — India. — Let us now 
briefly look at the countries of the Far East, which by 
the year 1400 had come to exercise over the mind of 
the European so irresistible a fascination. First of all, 
India, as we have seen, had for centuries been the prin- 
cipal source of the western commerce. But long before 
the date we are considering, the scepter of India had 
fallen from the hand of the Hindu. From the seventh 
century, India was a prey to Mohammedan conquerors, 
who entered from the northwest into the valley of the 
Indus. At first these were Saracens or Arabs; later 
they were the same Mongol converts to Mohammedanism, 
whose attacks upon Europe we have already noticed. 

In 1398 came the furious and bloody warrior, the 
greatest of all Mongols, — Timour, or Tamerlane. He 
founded, with capital at Delhi, the empire of the Great 
Mogul, whose ryle over India was only broken by the 
white man. Eastward across the Ganges and in the 
Dekkan, or southern part of India, were states ruled over 
by Indian princes. 

China. — We have seen how, at the time of Marco 
Polo, China also was ruled by the Tartar Mongols. The 


Chinese have ever been subject to attack from the wan- 
dering horse-riding tribes of Siberia. Two hundred years 
before Christ one of the Chinese Itings built the Great 
Wall that stretches across the northern frontier for one 
thousand three hundred miles, for a defense against north- 
ern foes. Through much of her history the Chinese 
have been ruled by aliens, as they are to-day. About 
1368, however, the Chinese overthrew the Mongol rulers 
and established the Ming dynasty, the last Chinese house 
of emperors, who ruled China until 1644, wRen the Man- 
chus, the present rulers, conquered the country. 

China was great and prosperous under the Mings. Com- 
merce flourished and the fleets of Chinese junks sailed to 
India, the Malay Islands, and to the Philippines for trade. 
The Grand Canal, which connects Peking with the Yangtze 
River basin and Hangchau, was completed. It was an 
age of fine productions of literature. 

The Chinese seem to have been much less exclusive 
then than they are at the present time; much less a 
peculiar, isolated people than now. They did not then 
shave their heads nor wear a queue. These customs, as 
well as that hostility to foreign intercourse which they 
have to-day, has been forced upon China by the Manchus. 
China appeared at that time ready to assume a position 
of enormous influence among the peoples of the earth, — 
a position for which she was wefl fitted by the great 
industry of all classes and the high intellectual power of 
her learned men. 

Japan. — Compared with China or India, or even some 
minor states, the development of Japan at this time was 
very backward. Her people were divided and there was 
constant civil war. The Japanese borrowed their civiliza- 
tion from the Chinese. From them they learned writing 


and literature, and the Buddhist religion, which was in- 
troduced about 550 a.d. But in temperament they are 
a very different people, being spirited, warlike, and, until 
recent years, despising trading and commerce. 

Since the beginning of her history, Japan has been an 
empire. The ruler, the Mikado, is believed to be of 
heavenly descent; but in the centuries we are discussing 
the government was controlled by powerful nobles, known 
as the Shogun, who kept the emperors in retirement in 
the palaces of Kyoto, and themselves directed the State. 
The greatest of these shoguns was lyeyasu, who ruled 
Japan about 1600, soon after Manila was founded. They 
developed in Japan a species of feudalism, the great lords, 
or "daimios," owning allegiance to the shoguns, and about 
the daimios, as feudal retainers, bodies of samurai, who 
formed a partly noble class of their own. The samurai 
carried arms, fought at their lords' command, were stu- 
dents and literati, and among them developed that proud, 
loyal, and elevated code of morality known as " Biishido," 
which has done so much for the Japanese people. It is 
this samurai class who in modern times have effected the 
immense revolution in the condition and power of Japan. 

The Malay Archipelego ■ — If now we look at the Ma- 
lay Islands, we find, as we have already seen, that changes 
had been effected there. Hinduism had first elevated and 
civilized at least a portion of the race, and Mohamme- 
danism and the daring seamanship of the Malay had 
united these islands under a common language and reli- 
gion. There was, however, no political union. The Malay 
peninsula was divided. Java formed a central Malay power. 
Eastward among the beautiful Celebes and Moluccas, the 
true Spice Islands, were a multitude of small native rulers, 
rajas or datos, who surrounded themselves with retain- 


ers, kept rude courts, and gathered wealthy tributes of 
ciimamon, pepper, and cloves. The sultans of Ternate, 
Tidor, and Amboina were especially powerful, and the 
islands they ruled the most rich and productive. 

Between all these islands there was a busy commerce. 
The Malay is an intrepid sailor, and an eager trader. 
Fleets of praos, laden with goods, passed with the chang- 
ing monsoons from part to part, risking the perils of piracy, 
which have always troubled this archipelago. Borneo, 
while the largest of all these islands, was the least devel- 
oped, and down to the present day has been hardly ex- 
plored. The Philippines were also outside of most of this 
busy intercourse and had at that date few products to 
offer for trade. Their only connection with the rest of the 
Malay race was through the Mohammedan Malays of Jolo 
and Borneo. The fame of the Spice Islands had long filled 
Europe, but the existence of the Philippines was unknown. 

Summary. — We have now reviewed the condition of 
Europe and of farther Asia as they were before the period 
of modern discovery and colonization opened. The East 
had reached a condition of quiet stability. Mohamme- 
danism, though still spreading, did not promise to effect 
great social changes. The institutions of the East had 
become fixed in custom and her peoples neither made 
changes nor desired them. On the other hand western 
Europe had become aroused to an excess of ambition. 
New ideas, new discoveries and inventions were moving 
the nations to activity and change. That era of modern 
discovery and progress, of which we cannot yet perceive 
the end, had begun. 



An Eastern Passage to India. — The Portuguese. — 'We 
have seen in the last chapter how Venice held a monopoly 
of the only trading-route with the Far East. Some new 
way of reaching India must be sought, that would permit 
the traders of other Christian powers to reach the marts of 
the Orient without passing through Mohammedan lands. 
This surpassing achievement was accomplished by the 
Portuguese. So low at the present day has the power of 
Portugal fallen that few realize the daring and courage 
once displayed by her seamen and soldiers ajid the enor- 
mous colonial empire that she established. 

Portugal freed her territory of the Mohammedan Moors 
nearly a century earlier than Spain; and the vigor and 
intelhgence of a great king, John I., brought Portugal, 
about the year 1400, to an important place among the 
states of Europe. This king captured from the Moors the 
city of Ceuta, in Morocco; and this was the beginning of 
modern European colonial possessions, and the first bit 
of land outside of Europe to be held by a European 
power since the times of the Crusades. King John's 
youngest son was Prince Henry, famous in history under 
the title of "the Navigator." This young prince, with 
something of the same adventurous spirit that filled the 
Crusaders, was ardent to extend the power of his father's 
kingdom and to widen the sway of the religion which he 
devotedly professed. The power of the Mohammedans in 
the Mediterranean was too great for him hopefully to 
oppose and so he planned the conquest of the west coast 



of Africa, and its conversion to Christianity. With these 
ends in view, he established at Point Sagres, on the south- 
western coast of Portugal, a naval academy and obser- 
vatory. Here he brought together skilled navigators, 
charts, and geographies, and all scientific knowledge that 
would assist in his undertaking.^ 

He began to construct ships larger and better than 
any in use. To us they would doubtless seem very clumsy 
and small, but this was the beginning of ocean ship-build- 
ing. The compass and the astrolabe, or sextant, the little 
instrument with which, by calculating the height of the 
sun above the horizon, we can tell distance from the equa- 
tor, were just coming into use. These, as well as every 
other practicable device for navigation known at that 
time, were supplied to these ships. 

Exploration of the African Coast. — Thus equipped 
and ably manned, the little fleets began the exploration of 
the African coast, cautiously feeling their way southward 
and ever' returning with reports of progress made. Year 
after year this work went on. In 1419 the Madeira 
Islands were rediscovered and colonized by Portuguese 
settlers. The growing of sugarcane was begun, and vines 
were brought from Burgundy and planted there. The 

' See the noted work The Life of Prince Henry of Portugal, sumamed 
the Navigator, and its Results, by Richard Henry Major, London, 1868. 
Many of the views of Mr. Major upon the importance of Prince Henry's 
work and especially its early aims, have been contradicted in more re- 
cent writings. The importance of the Sagres Observatory is belittled. 
Doubts are expressed as to the farsightedness of Prince Henry's plans, 
and the best opinion of to-day holds that he did not hope to discover 
a new route to India by way of Africa, but sought simply the conquest 
of the " Guinea," which was known to the Europeans through the Arab 
Geographers, who called it "Bilad Ghana" or "Land of Wealth." 
The students, if possible, should read the essay of Mr. E. J. Payne, 
The Age of Discovery, in the Cambridge Modem History, Vol I. 


wine of the Madeiras has been famous to this day. 
Then were discovered the Canaries and in 1444 the Azores. 
The southward exploration of the coast of the mainland 
steadily continued until in 1445 the Portuguese reached 
the mouth of the Senegal River. Up to this point the Afri- 
can shore had not yielded much of interest to the Portu- 
guese explorer or trader. Below Morocco the great Sahara 
Desert reaches to the sea and renders barren the coast 
for hxmdreds of miles. 

South of the mouth of the Senegal and comprising 
the whole Guinea coast, Africa is tropical, well watered, 
and populous. This is the home of the true African 
Negro. Here, for almost the first time, since the be- 
ginning of the Middle Ages, Christian Europe came in 
contact with a race of ruder culture and different color 
than its own. This coast was foimd to be worth exploit- 
ing; for it yielded, besides various desirable resinous gums, 
three articles which have distinguished the exploitation of 
Africa, namely, gold, ivory, and slaves. 

Beginning of Negro Slavery in Europe. — At this point 
begins the horrible and revolting story of European Negro 
slavery. The ancient world had practiced this owner- 
ship of human chattels, and the Roman Empire had de- 
clined under a burden of half the population sunk in 
bondage. To the enormous detriment and suffering of 
mankind, Mohammed had tolerated the institution, and 
slavery is permitted by the Koran. But it is the glory of 
the mediaeval church that it abolished human slavery 
from Christian Europe. However dreary and unjust feu- 
dalism may have been, it knew nothing of that institution 
which degrades men and women to the level of cattle and 
remorselessly sells the husband from his family, the mother 
from her child. 


Slaves in Portugal. — The arrival of the Portuguese 
upon the coast of Guinea now revived not the bondage of 
one white man to another, but that of the black to the 
white. The first slaves carried to Portugal were regarded 
simply as objects of peculiar interest, captives to repre- 
sent to the court the population of those shores whifch had 
been added to the Portuguese dominion. But southern 
Portugal, from which the Moors had been expelled, had 
suffered from a lack of laborers, and it was found profit- 
able to introduce Negroes to work these fields. 

Arguments to Justify Slavery. — So arose the insti- 
tution of Negro slavery, which a century later upon the 
shores of the New World was to develop into so tremen- 
dous and terrible a thing. Curiously enough, religion was 
evoked to justify this enslavement of the Africans. The 
Church taught that these people, being heathen, were 
fortunate to be captured by Christians, that they might 
thereby be brought to baptism and conversion; for it is 
better for the body to perish than for the soul to be cast 
into hell. At a later age, when the falsity of this teach- 
ing had been realized, men still sought to justify the 
institution by arguing that the Almighty had created' 
the African of a lower state especially that he might serve 
the superior race. 

The coast of Guinea continued to be the resort of slavers 
down to the middle of the last century, and such scenes 
of cruelty, wickedness, and debauchery have occurred along 
its shores as can scarcely be paralleled in brutality in the 
history of any people. 

The Portuguese can hardly be said to have colonized 
the coast in the sense of raising up there a Portuguese 
population. As he approached the equator the white man 
found that, in spite of his superior strength, he could not 


permanently people the tropics. Diseases new to his 
experience attacked him. His energy declined. If he 
brought his family with him, his children were few or 
feeble and shortly his race had died out. 

The settlements of the Portuguese were largely for the 
purposes of trade. At Sierra Leone, Kamerun, or Loango, 
they built forts and established garrisons, mounting pieces 
of artillery that gave them advantage over the attacks of 
the natives, and erecting warehouses and the loathsome 
"barracoon," where the slaves were confined to await 
shipment. Such decadent little settlements still linger 
along the African coast, although the slave-trade happily 
has ended. 

The Successful Voyage of Vasco da Gama. — Through- 
out the century Prince Henry's policy of exploration was 
continued. Slowly the middle coast of Africa became 
known. At last in 1486, Bartholomew Diaz rounded the 
extremity of the continent. He named it the Cape of 
Storms; but the Portuguese king, with more prophetic 
sight, renamed it the Cape of Good Hope. It was ten 
years, however, before the Portuguese could send another 
expedition. Then Vasco da Gama rounded the cape 
again, followed up the eastern coast until the Arab trad- 
ing-stations were reached. Then he struck across the sea, 
landed at the Malabar coast of India, and in 1498 arrived 
at Calcutta. The end dreamed of by all of Europe had 
been achieved. A sea-route to the Far East had been 

Results of Da Gama's Voyage. — The importance of 
this performance was instantly recognized in Europe. 
Venice was ruined. " It was a terrible day," said a con- 
temporary writer, " when the word reached Venice. Bells 
were rung, men wept in the streets, and even the bravest 


were silent." The Arabs and the native rulers made a 
desperate effort to expel the Portuguese from the Indian 
Ocean, but their opponents were too powerful. In the 
course of twenty years Portugal had founded an empire 
that had its forts and trading-marts from the coast of 
Arabia to Malaysia. Zanzibar, Aden, Oman, Goa, Calicut, 
and Madras were all Portuguese stations, fortified and se- 
cured. In the Malay peninsula was foimded the colony of 
Malacca. It retained its importance and power until in 
the last century, when it dwindled before the competition 
of Singapore. 

The work of building up this great domain was largely 
that of one man, the intrepid Albuquerque. Think what 
his task was! He was thousands of miles from home and 
supplies, he had only such forces and munitions as he 
could bring with him in his little ships, and opposed to 
him were millions of inhabitants and a multitude of Mo- 
hammedan princes. Yet this great captain built up an 
Indian empire. Portugal at one bound became the great- 
est trading and colonizing power in the world. Her sources 
of wealth appeared fabulous, and, like Venice, she made 
every effort to secure her monopoly. The fleets of other 
nations were warned that they could not make use of the 
Cape of Good Hope route, on penalty of being captured 
or destroyed. 

Reaching India by Sailing West. — The Earth as a 
Sphere. — Meanwhile, just as Portugal was carrying to 
completion her project of reaching India by sailing east, 
Europe was electrified by the supposed successful attempt 
of reaching India by sailing directly west, across the At- 
lantic. This was the plan daringly attempted in 1492 by 
Christopher Columbus. Columbus was an Italian sailor 
and cosmographer of Genoa. The idea of sailing west to 


India did not originate with him, but his is the immortal 
glory of having persistently sought the means and put the 
idea into execution. 

The Portuguese discoveries along the African coast 
gradually revealed the extension of this continent and 
the presence of people beyond the equator, and the pos- 
sibility of passing safely through the tropics. This knowl- 
edge was a great stimulus to the peoples of Europe. 
The geographical theory of the Greeks, that the world is 
round, was revived. The geographers, however, in mak- 
ing their calculations of the earth's circumference, had 
fallen into an error of some thousands of miles; that is, 
instead of finding that it is fully twelve thousand miles 
from Europe around to the East Indies, they had sup- 
posed it about four thousand, or even less. Marco Polo 
too had exaggerated the distance he had traveled and 
from his accounts men had been led to believe that China, 
Japan, and the Spice Islands lie much fm-ther to the east 
than they actually do. 

By sailing west across one wide ocean, with no interven- 
ing lands, it was thought that one could arrive at the 
island-world off the continent of Asia. This was the theory 
that was revived in Italy and which clung in men's minds 
for years and years, even after America was discovered. 

All Italian, named Toscanelli, drew a map showing 
how this voyage could be made, and sent Columbus a 
copy. By sailing first to the Azores, a considerable por- 
tion of the journey would be passed, with a convenient 
resting-stage. Then about thirty-five days' favorable sail- 
ing would bring one to the islands of "Cipango," or 
Japan, which Marco Polo had said lay off the continent 
of Asia. From here the passage could readily be pur- 
sued to Cathay and India. 


The Voyage of Christopher Columbus. — The roman- 
tic and inspiring story of Columbus is told in many books, 
— his poverty, his genius, his long and discouraging pur- 
suit of the means to carry out his plan. He first applied 
to Portugal; but, as we have seen, this country had been 
pursuing another plan steadily for a century, and, now 
that success appeared almost at hand, naturally the 
Portuguese king would not turn aside to favor Colinnbus's 

For years Columbus labored to interest the Spanish 
court. A great event had happened in Spanish history. 
Ferdinand, king of Aragon, had wedded Isabella of Castile, 
and this marriage united these two kingdoms into the 
modern country of Spain. Soon the smaller states except 
Portugal were added, and the war for the expulsion of the 
Moors was prosecuted with new vigor. In 1492, Grenada, 
the last splendid stronghold of the Mohammedans in the 
peninsula, surrendered, and in the same year Isabella fur- 
nished Columbus with the ships for his voyage of dis- 

Columbus sailed from Palos, August 3, 1492, reached the 
Canaries August 24, and sailed westward on September 
6. Day after day, pushed by the strong winds, called 
the "trades,'' they went forward. Many doubts and fears 
beset the crews, but Columbus was stout-hearted. At the 
end of thirty-four days from the Canaries, on October 12, 
they sighted land. It was one of the groups of beautiful 
islands lying between the two continents of America. But 
Columbus thought that he had reached the East Indies that 
really lay many thousands of miles farther west. Colum- 
bus sailed among the islands of the archipelago, discov- 
ered Cuba and Hispaniola (Haiti), and then returned to 
convulse Europe with excitement over the new-found way 


to the East. He had not found the rich Spice Islands, the 
peninsula of India, Cathay or Japan, but every one be- 
lieved that these must be close to the islands on which 
Columbus had landed. 

The tall, straight-haired, copper-colored natives, whom 
Columbus met on the islands, he naturally called "In- 
dians"; and this name they still bear. Afterwards the 
islands were called the "West Indies." Columbus made 
three more voyages for Spain. On the fourth, in 1498, 
he touched on the coast of South America. Here he dis- 
covered the great Orinoco River. Because of its large 
size, he must have realized that a large body of land 
opposed the passage to the Orient. He died in 1506, dis- 
appointed at his failure to find India, but never knowing 
what he had found, nor that the history of a new hemi- 
sphere had begun with him. 

The Voyage of the Cabots. — In the same year that 
Columbus discovered the Orinoco, Sebastian Cabot, of 
Italian parentage, hke Columbus, secured ships from the 
king of England, hoping to reach China and Japan by 
sailing west on a northern route. What he did discover 
was a rugged and uninviting coast, with stormy head- 
lands, cold climate, and gloomy forests of pine reaching 
down to the sandy shores. For nine hundred miles he 
sailed southward, but everywhere this unprofitable coast 
closed the passage to China. It was the coast of Labra- 
dor and the United States. Yet for years and years it 
was not known that a continent three thousand miles 
wide and the greatest of all oceans lay between Cathay 
and the shore visited by Cabot's ships. This land was 
thought to be a long peninsula, an island, or series of 
islands, belonging to Asia. No one supposed or could sup- 
pose that there was a continent here. 


Naming the New World. — But in a few years Europe 
did realize that a new continent had been discovered in 
South America. If_ you will look at your maps, you will 
see that South America lies far to the eastward of North 
America and in Brazil approaches very close to Africa. 
This Brazilian coast was visited by a Portuguese fleet on 
the African route in 1499, and two years later an Italian 
fleet traversed the coast from the Orinoco to the harbor 
of Rio Janeiro. Their voyage was a veritable revelation. 
They entered the mighty current of the Amazon, the great- 
est river of the earth. They saw the wondrous tropical 
forests, full of monkeys, great snakes, and stranger ani- 
mals. They dealt and fought with the wild and ferocious 
inhabitants, whose ways startled and appalled the Euro- 
pean. All that they saw filled them with greatest wonder. 
This evidently was not Asia, nor was it the Indies. Here, 
in fact, was a new continent, a veritable " Mundus Novus." 
The pilot of this expedition was an Italian, named 
Amerigo Vespucci. On the return this man wrote a very 
interesting letter or little pamphlet, describing this new 
world, which was widely read, and brought the writer 
fame. A few years later a German cosmographer, in pre- 
paring a new edition of Ptolemy's geography, proposed to 
give to this new continent the name of the man who had 
made known its wonders in Europe. So it was called 
"America." Long after, when the northern shores were 
■ also proved to be those of a continent, this great land was 
named "North America." No injustice was intended to 
Columbus when America was so named. It was not then 
supposed that Columbus had discovered a continent. 
The people then believed that Columbus had found a new 
route to India and had discovered some new islands that 
lay off the coast of Asia,. 


Spain Takes Possession of the New Lands. — Of these 
newly found islands and whatever wealth they might be 
found to contain, Spain claimed the possession by right 
of discovery. And of the European nations, it was Spain 
which first began the exploration and colonization of 
America. Spain was now free from her long Mohamme- 
dan wars, and the nation was being united under Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella. The Spaniards were brave, adventurous, 
and too proud to engage in commerce or agriculture, 
but ready enough to risk life and treasure in quest of riches 
abroad. The Spaniards were devotedly religious, and the 
Church encouraged conquest, that missionary work might 
be extended. So Spain began her career that was soon 
to make her the foremost power of Europe and one of the 
greatest colonial empires the world has seen. It is amaz- 
ing what the Spaniards accomplished in the fifty years 
following Columbus's first voyage. 

Hispaniola was made the center from which the Span- 
iards extended their explorations to the continents of both 
North and South America. On these islands of the West 
Indies they found a great tribe of Indians, — the Caribs. 
They were fierce and cruel. The Spaniards waged a war- 
fare of extermination against them, killing many, and en- 
slaving others for work in the mines. The Indian proved 
unable to exist as a slave. And his sufferings drew the 
attention of a Spanish priest, Las Casas, who by vigorous 
efforts at the court succeeded in having Indian slavery 
abolished and African slavery introduced to take its place. 
This remedy was in the end worse than the disease, for it 
gave an immense impetus to the African slave-trade and 
peopled America with a race of Africans in bondage. 

Other Spanish Explorations and Discoveries. — Mean- 
while, the Spanish soldier, with incredible energy, courage. 


and daring, pushed his conquests. In 1513, Florida was 
discovered, and in the same year Balboa crossed the nar- 
row isthmus of Panama and saw the Pacific Ocean. Con- 
trary to what is often supposed, he did not dream of its 
vast extent, but supposed it to be a narrow body of water 
lying between Panama and the Asian islands. He named 
it the "South Sea," a name that survived after its true 
character was revealed by Magellan. Then followed the 
two most romantic and surprising conquests of colonial 
history, — that of Mexico by Cortes in 1521, and of Peru 
by Pizarro in 1533-34. These great countries were in- 
habited by Indians, the most advanced and cultured on 
the American continents. And here the Spaniards found 
enormous treasures of gold and silver. Then, the dis- 
covery of the mines of Bogota opened the greatest source 
of the precious metal that Europe had ever known. Span- 
iards flocked to the New World, and in New Spain, as 
Mexico was called, was established a great vice-royalty. 
Year after year enormous wealth was poured into Spain 
from these American possessions. 

Emperor Charles F- — Meanwhile great political power 
had been added to Spain in Europe. In 1520 the throne 
of Spain fell to a young man, Charles, the grandson of 
Ferdinand and Isabella. His mother was Juana, the 
Spanish princess, and his father was Philip the Hand- 
some, of Burgundy. Philip the Handsome was the son of 
Maximilian, the Archduke of Austria. Now it curiously 
happened that the thrones of each of these three coun- 
tries was left without other heirs than Charles, and in 
1520 he was King of Spain, Archduke of Austria, and 
Duke of Burgundy and the Low Countries, including the 
rich commercial cities of Holland and Belgium. In addi- 
tion to all this, the German princes elected him German 


emperor, and although he was King Charles the First of 
Spain, he is better known in history as Emperor Charles 
the Fifth.^ 

He was then an untried boy of twenty years, and no 
one expected to find in him a man of resolute energy, cold 
persistence, and great executive ability. But so it proved, 
and this was the man that made of Spain the greatest 
power of the time. He was in constant warfare. He 
fought four wars with King Francis I. of France, five 
wars with the Turks, both in the Danube valley and in 
Africa, and an unending succession of contests with the 
Protestant princes of Germany. For Charles, besides many 
other important changes, saw the rise of Protestantism, 
and the revolt of Germany, Switzerland, and England 
from Catholicism. The first event in his emperorship 
was the assembling of the famous German Diet at Worms, 
where was tried and condemned the real fomider of the 
Protestant religion, Martin Luther. 

The Voyage of Hernando Magellan. — In the mean time 
a way had at last been found to reach the Orient from 
Europe by sailing west. This discovery, the greatest voy- 
age ever made by man, was accomplished, in 1521, by the 
fleet of Hernando Magellan. Magellan was a Portuguese, 
who had been- in the East with Albuquerque. He had 
fought with the Malays in Malacca, and had helped to 
establish the Portuguese power in India. 

On his return to Portugal, the injustice of the court 
drove him from his native country, and he entered the 
service of Spain. Charles the Fifth commissioned him 
to attempt a voyage of discovery down the coast of South 

' The classical work on this famous ruler is Robertson's Life of 
.Charles the Fifth, but the student should consult if possible more 
recent -works. 


America, with the hope of finding a passage to the East. 
This was Magellan's great hope and faith, — that south 
of the new continent of America must lie a passage west- 
ward, by which ships could sail to China. As long as 
Portugal was able to keep closed the African route to all 
other ships than her own, the discovery of some other 
way was imperative. 

On the 20th of September, 1519, Magellan's fleet of five 
ships set sail from Seville, which was the great Spanish 
shipping-port for the dispatch of the colonial fleets. On 
December 13 they reached the coast of Brazil and then 
coasted southward. They traded with the natives, and 
at the mouth of the Rio de la Plata stayed some days 
to fish. 

The weather grew rapidly colder and more stormy as 
they went farther south, and Magellan decided to stop and 
winter in the Bay of San Julian. Here the cold of the 
winter, the storms, and the lack of food caused a con- 
spiracy among his captains to mutiny and return to Spain. 
Magellan acted with swift and terrible energy. He went 
himself on board one of the mutinous vessels, kifled the 
chief conspirator with his own hand, executed another, 
and then "marooned," or left to their fate on the shore, 
a friar and one other, who were leaders in the plot. 

The Straits of Magellan. — The fleet sailed south- 
ward again in August but it was not until November 1, 
1520, that Magellan entered the long and stormy straits 
that bear ' his name and which connect the Atlantic 
and Pacific oceans. South of them were great bleak 
islands, cold and desolate. They were inhabited by In- 
dians, who are probably the lowest and most wretched 
savages on the earth. They live on fish and mussels. As 
they go at all times naked, they carry with them in their 


boats brands and coals of fire. Seeing the numerous lights 
on the shore, Magellan named these islands Tierra del 
Fuego (the Land of Fire). For twenty days the ships 
struggled with the contrary and shifting winds that pre- 
vail in this channel, during which time one ship deserted 
and returned to Spain. Then the remaining four ships 
passed out onto the boundless waters of the Pacific. 

Westward on the Pacific Ocean. — But we must not 
make the mistake of supposing that Magellan and his fol- 
lowers imagined that a great ocean confronted them. 
They expected that simply sailing northward to the lati- 
tude of the Spice Islands would bring them to these de- 
sired places. This they did, and then turned westward, 
expecting each day to find the Indies; but no land ap- 
peared. The days lengthened into weeks, the weeks into 
months, and still they went forward, carried by the trade 
winds over a sea so smooth and free from tempests that 
Magellan named it the "Pacific." 

But they suffered horribly from lack of food, even 
eating in their starvation the leather slings on the masts. 
It was a terrible trial of their courage. Twenty of their 
mmiber died. The South Pacific is studded with islands, 
but curiously their route lay just too far north to behold 
them. From November 28, when they emerged from the 
Straits of Magellan, until March 7, when they reached 
the Ladrones, they encountered only two islands, and these 
were small uninhabited rocks, without water or food, which 
in their bitter disappointment they named las Desven- 
turadas (the Unfortunate Islands). 

The, Liulroii.f. Islands. — Their relief must have been 
inexpressible when, on coming up to land on March the 
7th, they found inhabitants and food, yams, cocoanuts, 
and rice. At these islands the Spaniards first saw the 


/J, + + + • • • • .■^j^.i -■- -%'-t^^x 




prao, with its light outrigger, and pointed sail. So 
numerous were these craft that they named the group 
las Islas de las Velas (the Islands of Sails) ; but the loss 
of a ship's boat and other annoying thefts led the sailors 
to designate the islands Los Ladrones (the Thieves), a 
name which they still retain. 

The Philippine Islands. — Samar. — Leaving the La- 
drones Magellan sailed on westward looking for the Moluc- 
cas, and the first land that he sighted was the eastern 
coast of Samar. Pigafetta says : ' ' Saturday, the 16th of 
March, we sighted an island which has very lofty moun- 
tains. Soon after we learned that it was Zamal, distant 
three himdred leagues from the islands of the Ladrones." ' 

JSomonhon. — On the following day the sea-worn ex- 
pedition, landed on a little uninhabited island south of 
Samar which Pigafetta called Humimu, and which is 
still known as Homonhon or Jomonjol. 

It was while staying at this little island that the Span- 
iards first saw the people of the Philippines. A prao 
which contained nine men approached their ship. They 
saw other boats fishing near and learned that all of these 
people came from the island of Suluan, which lies off to 
the eastward from Jomonjol about twenty kilometres. 
In their life and appearance these fishing people were much 
like the present Samal laut of southern Mindanao and 
the Sulu Archipelago. 

Limasaua. — Pigafetta says that they stayed on the 
island of Jomonj61 eight days but had great difficulty m 
securing food. The natives brought them a few cocoa- 
nuts and oranges, palm wine, and a chicken or two, but 
this was all that could be spared,, so, on the 25th, the 

' Primer Viaje alrededor del Mundo, Spanish translation by Amoretti, 
Madrid, 1899, page 27. 


Spaniards sailed again, and near the south end of Leyte 
landed on the little island of Limasaua. Here there was 
a village, where they met two chieftains, whom Pigafetta 
calls " kings," and whose names were Raja Calambii 
and Raja Ciagu. These two chieftains were visiting 
Limasaua and had their residences one at Butiian and one 
at Cagayan on the island of Mindanao. Some histories 
have stated that the Spaniards accompanied one of these 
chieftains to Butuan, but this does not appear to have 
been the case. 

On the island of Limasaua the natives had dogs, cats, 
hogs, goats, and fowls. They were cultivating rice, maize, 
breadfruit, and had also cocoanuts, oranges, bananas, 
citron, and ginger. Pigafetta tells how he visited one of 
the chieftains at his home on the shore. The house was 
built as Filipino houses are today, raised on posts and 
thatched. Pigafetta thought it looked " like a haystack." 

It had been the day of San Lazarus when the Spaniards 
first reached these islands, so that Magellan gave to the 
group the name of the Archipelago of Saint Lazarus, the 
name under which the Philippines were frequently described 
in the early writings, although another title, Mas del 
Poniente or Islands of the West, was more conmion up 
to the time when the title Filipinas became fixed. 

Cebu. — Magellan's people were now getting desper- 
ately in need of food, and the population on Limasaua 
had very inadequate supplies; consequently the natives 
directed him to the island of Cebu, and provided him 
with guides. 

Leaving Limasaua the fleet sailed for Cebu, passing 
several large islands, among them Bohol, and reaching 
Cebu harbor on Sunday, the 7th of April. A junk from 
Siam was anchored at Cebu when Magellan's ships arrived 


there; and this, together with the knowledge that the 
FiHpinos showed of the surrounding countries, including 
China on the one side and the Moluccas on the other, is 
additional evidence of the extensive trade relations at 
the time of the discovery. 

Cebu seems to have been a large town and it is reported 
that more than two thousand warriors with their lances 
appeared to resist the landing of the Spaniards, but assur- 
ances of friendliness finally won the Filipinos, and Magellan 
formed a compact with the dato of Cebu, whose name was 

The Blood Compact. — The dato invited Magellan to 
seal this compact in accordance with a curious custom of 
the Filipinos. Each chief wounded himself in the breast 
and from the wound each sucked and drank the other's 
blood. It is not certain whether Magellan participated in 
this "blood compact," as it has been called; but later it 
was observed many times in the Spanish settlement of the 
islands, especially by Legaspi. 

The natives were much struck by the service of the 
mass, which the Spaniards celebrated on their landing, 
and after some encouragement desired to be admitted to 
the Spaniards' religion. More than eight hundred were 
baptized, including Hamalbar. The Spaniards established 
a kind of "factory" or trading-post on Cebu, and for 
some time a profitable trade was engaged in. The 
Filipinos well understood trading, had scales, weights, 
and measures, and were fair dealers. 

Death of Magellan. — And now follows the great trag- 
edy of the expedition. The dato of Cebu, or the " Chris- 
tian king," as Pigafetta called their new ally, was at war 
with the islanders of Mactan. Magellan, eager to assist 
one who had adopted the Christian faith, landed on Mac- 



tan with fifty men and in the battle that ensued was killed 
by an arrow through the leg and spear-thrust through the 
breast. So died the one who was unquestionably the 
greatest explorer and most daring adventurer of all time. 
"Thus,^ says Pigafetta, "perished our guide, our light, 
and our support." It was the crowning disaster of the 

The Fleet Visits Other Islands. — After Magellan's 
death, the natives of Cebu rose and killed the newly 

Magellan Monument, Manila. 

elected leader, Serrano, and the fleet in fear lifted its an- 
chors and sailed southward from the Bisayas. They had 
lost thirty-five men and their numbers were reduced to 
one hundred and fifteen. One of the ships was burned, 
there being too few men surviving to handle three vessels. 
After touching at western Mindanao, they sailed west- 
ward, and saw the small group of Cagayan Sulu. The 


few inhabitants they learned were Moros, exiled from 
Borneo. They landed on Paragua, called Puluan (hence 
Palawan), where they observed the sport of cock-fighting, 
indulged in by the natives. 

From here, still searching for the Moluccas, they were 
guided to Borneo, the present city of Brunei. Here was 
the powerful Mohammedan colony, whose adventurers 
were already in communication with Luzon and had es- 
tablished a colony on the site of Manila. The city was 
divided into two sections, that of the Mohammedan Ma- 
lays, the conquerors, and that of the Dyaks, the primi- 
tive population of the island. Pigafetta exclaims over the 
riches and power of this Mohammedan city. It contained 
twenty-five thousand families, the houses built for most 
part on piles over the water. The king's house was of 
stone, and beside it was a great brick fort, with over sixty 
brass and iron cannon. Here the Spaniards saw elephants 
and camels, and there was a rich trade in ginger, camphor, 
gums, and in pearls from Sulu. 

HostiUties cut short their stay here and they sailed 
eastward along the north coast of Borneo through the 
Sulu Archipelago, where their cupidity was excited by 
the pearl fisheries, and on to Maguindanao. Here they 
took some prisoners, who piloted them south to the Mo- 
luccas, and finally, on November 8, they anchored at 
Tidor. These Molucca islands, at this time, were at the 
height of the Malayan power. The ruler, or raja of Tidor 
was Almanzar, of Ternate Corala; the "king" of Gilolo 
was Yusef . With all these rulers the Spaniards exchanged 
presents, and the rajas are said by the Spaniards to 
have sworn perpetual amnesty to the Spaniards and ac- 
knowledged themselves vassals of the king. In ex- 
change for cloths, the Spaniards laid in a rich cargo of 


cloves, sandalwood, ginger, cinnamon, and gold. They 
established here a trading-post and hoped to hold these 
islands against the Portuguese. 

The Return to Spain. — It was decided to send one 
ship, the "Victoria," to Spain by way of the Portuguese 
route and the Cape of Good Hope, while the other would 
return to America. Accordingly the "Victoria," with a 
Uttle crew of sixty men, thirteen of them natives, under 
the command of Juan Sebastian del Cano, set sail. The 
passage was unknown to the Spaniards and full of perils. 
They sailed to Timor and thence out into the Indian 
Ocean. They rounded Africa, sailing as far south as 42 
degrees. Then they went northward, in constant peril of 
capture by some Portuguese fleet, encountering storms 
and with scarcity of food. Their distress must have been 
extreme, for on this final passage twenty-one of their 
smkll number died. 

At Cape Verdi they entered the Portuguese port for 
supplies, trusting that at so northern a point their real 
voyage would not be suspected. But some one of the 
party, who went ashore for food, in an hour of intoxica- 
tion boasted of the wonderful journey they had performed 
and showed some of the products of the Spice Islands. 
Immediately the Portuguese governor gave orders for the 
seizure of the Spanish vessel and El Cano, learning of his 
danger, left his men, who had gone on shore, raised sail, 
and put out for Spain. 

On the 6th of September, 1522, they arrived at San 
Lucar, at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River, on which 
is situated Seville, one ship out of the five, and eighteen 
men out of the company of 234, who had set sail almost 
three full years before. Spain welcomed her worn and 
tired seamen with splendid acclaim. To El Cano was 


given a title of nobility and the famous coat-of-arms, 
showing the sprays of clove, cinnamon, and nutmeg, and 
the effigy of the globe with the motto, the proudest and 
worthiest ever displayed on any adventurer's shield, " Hie 
primus circum dedit me." 

The First Circumnavigation of the Earth. — Thus with 
enormous suffering and loss of life was accomplished the 
first circumnavigation of the earth. It proved that Asia 
could be reached, although by a long and circuitous route, 
by sailing westward from Europe. It made known to 
Europe that the greatest of all oceans lies between the 
New World and Asia, and it showed that the earth is in- 
comparably larger than had been believed and supposed. 
It was the greatest voyage of discovery that has ever 
been accomplished, and greater than can ever be per- 
formed again. 

New Lands Divided between Spain and Portugal. — By 
this discovery of the Philippines and a new way to the 
Spice Islands, Spain became engaged in a long dispute with 
Portugal. At the beginning of the modern age, there 
was in Europe no system of rules by which to regulate 
conduct between states. That system of regulations and 
customs which we call International Law, and by which 
states at the present time are guided in their dealings, 
had not arisen. During the middle age, disputes between 
sovereigns were frequently settled by reference to the em- 
peror or to the pope, and the latter had frequently asserted 
his right to determine all such questions as might arise. 
The pope had also claimed to have the right of disposing 
of- all heathen and newly discovered lands and peoples. 

So, after the discovery of the East Indies by Portugal 
and of the West Indies by Spain, Pope Alexander VI., 
divided the new lands between them. He declared that 

Appfoxtmate ''posit 

J o/^ rrieridiahjifp^as't 'fKom Link of tTemarca.tion 


all newly discovered countries halfway around the earth 
to the east of a meridian 100 leagues west of the Azores 
should be Portuguese, and all to the west Spanish. Sub- 
sequently he shifted this line to 270 leagues west of the 
Azores. This division, it was supposed, would give India 
and the Malay islands to Portugal, and to Spain the In- 
dies that Columbus had discovered, and the New World, 
except Brazil. 

As a matter of fact, 180 degrees west of the meridian 
last set by the pope extended to the western part of 
New Guinea, and not quite to the Moluccas; but in the 
absence of exact geographical knowledge both parties 
claimed the Spice Islands. Portugal denied to Spain all 
right to the Philippines as well, and, as we shall see, a 
conflict in the Far East began, which lasted nearly through 
the century. Portugal captured the traders, whom El 
Cano had left at Tidor, and broke up the Spanish station 
in the Spice Islands. The "Trinidad," the other ship, 
which was intended to return to America, was unable to 
sail against the strong winds, and had to put back to Ti- 
dor, after cruising through the waters about New Guinea. 

Effect of the Century of Discoveries. — This circumnav- 
igation of the globe completed a period of- discovery 
which had begun a hundred years before with the timid, 
slow attempts of the Portuguese along the coast of Africa. 
In these years a new era had opened. At its beginning 
the European knew little of any peoples outside of his own 
countries, and he held not one mile of land outside the 
continent of Europe. At the end of a hundred years the 
earth had become fairly well known, the African race, 
the Malay peoples, the American Indians, and the Pacific 
islanders had all been seen and described, and from now 
on the history of the white race was to be connected 

th:e great geographical discoveries. 87 

with that of these other races. The age of colonization, 
of world-wide trade and intercourse, had begun. The 
white man, who had heretofore been narrowly pressed 
in upon Europe, threatened again and again with conquest 
by the Mohammedan, was now to cover the seas with his 
flieets and all lands with his power. 



Position of Tribes. — On the arrival of the Spaniards, 
the population of the Philippines seems to have been dis- 
tributed by tribes in much the same manner as at present. 
Then, as now, the Bisaya occupied the central islands 
of the archipelago and some of the northern coast of 
Mindanao. The Bicol, Tagdlog, and Pampango were in 
the same parts of Luzon as we find them to-day. The 
Ilocano occupied the coastal plain facing the China Sea, 
but since the arrival of the Spaniards they have expanded 
considerably and their settlements are now numerous in 
Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, and the valley of the Cagayan. 

The Number of People. — These tribes which to-day 
number nearly 7,000,000 souls, at the time of Magellan's 
discovery were, probably, not more than 500,000. The 
first enumeration of the population made by the Spaniards 
in 1591, and which included practically all of these tribes, 
gives a population of less than 700,000. (See Chapter 
VIII., The Philippines Three Hundred Years Ago.) 

There are other facts too that show us how sparse the 
population must have been. The Spanish expeditions 
found many coasts and islands in the Bisayan group 
without inhabitants. Occasionally a sail or a canoe 
would be seen, and then these would disappear in some 
small "estero" or mangrove swamp and the land seem as 
unpopulated as before. At certain points, like Lima- 
saua, Butuan, and Bohol, the natives were more numer- 
ous, and Cebu was a large and thriving community; hut 



the Spaniards had nearly everywhere to search for settled 
places and cultivated lands. 

The sparsity of population is also well indicated by the 
great scarcity of food. The Spaniards had much difficulty 
in securing sufficient provisions. A small amount of rice, 
a pig and a few chickens, were obtainable here and there, 
but the Filipinos had no large supplies. After the settle- 
ment of Manila was made, a large part of the food of 
the city was drawn from China. The very ease with 
which the Spaniards marched where they willed and re- 
duced the Filipinos to obedience shows that the latter 
were weak in numbers. Laguna and the Camarines seem 
to have been the most populous portions of the archipel- 
ago. All of these things and others show that the Fili- 
pinos were but a small fraction of their present number. 

On the other hand, the Negritos seem to have been more 
numerous, or at least more in evidence. They were im- 
mediately noticed on the island of Negros, where at the 
present they are few and confined to the interior; and in 
the vicinity of Manila and in Batangas, where they are no 
longer found, they were mingling with the Tagiilog popu- 

Conditions of Culture. —The culture of the various 
tribes, which is now quite the same throughout the archi- 
pelago, presented some differences. In the southern Bi- 
sayas, where the Spaniards first entered the archipelago, 
there seem to have been two kinds of natives: the hill 
dwellers, who lived in the interior of the islands in small 
numbers, who wore garments of tree bark and who some- 
times built their houses in the trees; and the sea dwellers, 
who were very much like the present day Moro tribes 
south of Mindanao, who are known as the Sdmal, and 
who built their villages over the sea or on the shore and 


lived much in boats. These were probably later arrivals 
than the forest people. From both of these elements the 
Bisaya Filipinos are descended, but while the coast people 
have been entirely absorbed, some of the hill-folk are 
still pagan and uncivilized, and must be very much as 
they were when the Spaniards first came. 

The highest grade of culture was in the settlements 
where there was regular trade with Borneo, Siam, and 
China, and especially about Manila, where many Moham- 
medan Malays had colonies. 

Languages of the Malayan Peoples. — With the exception 
of the Negrito, all the languages of the Philippines belong 
to one great family, which has been called the " Malayp- 
Polynesian." All are believed to be derived from one 
very ancient mother-tongue. It is astonishing how widely 
this Malayo-Polynesian speech has spread. Farthest east 
in the Pacific there is the Polynesian, then in the groups of 
small islands, known as Micronesian; then Melanesian or 
Papuan; the Malayan throughout the East Indian archi- 
pelago, and to the north the languages of the Philippines. 
But this is not all; for far westward on the coast of Africa 
is the island of Madagascar, many of whose languages have 
no connection with African but belong to the Malayo- 
Polynesian family.' 

The Tagalog Language. — It should be a matter of 
great interest to Filipinos that the great scientist. Baron 

' The discovery of this famous relationship is attributed to the 
Spanish Jesuit Abb^, Lorenzo Hervas, whose notable Catahgo de las 
Lenguas de las Naciones conocidas was published in 1800-05; but the 
similarity of Malay and Polynesian had been earlier shown by nat- 
uralists who accompanied the second voyage of the famous English- 
man, Captain Cook (1772-75). The full proof, and the relation also 
of Malagasy, the language of Madagascar, was given in 1838 by the 
work of the gieat German philologist, Baron William von Humboldt. 


William von Humboldt, considered the Tagdlog to be the 
richest and most perfect of all the languages of the Malayo- 
Polynesian family, and perhaps the type of them all. " It 
possesses," he said, "all the forms collectively of which 
particular ones are foimd singly in other dialects; and it 
has preserved them all with very trifling exceptions un- 
broken, and in entire harmony and symmetry." The 
Spanish friars, on their arrival in the Philippines, devoted 
themselves at once to learning the native dialects and to 
the preparation of prayers and catechisms in these native 
tongues. They were very successful in their studies. 
Father Chirino tells us of one Jesuit who learned sufficient 
Tagalog in seventy days to preach and hear confession. 
In this way the Bisayan, the Tagalog, and the Ilocano 
were soon mastered. 

In the light of the opinion of Von Humboldt, it is in- 
teresting to find these early Spaniards pronouncing the 
Tagalog the most difficult and the most admirable. "Of 
all of them," says Padre Chirino, "the one which most 
pleased me and filled me with admiration was the Tagalog. 
Because, as I said to the first archbishop, and afterwards 
to other serious persons, both there and here, I found in 
it four qualities of the four best languages of the world: 
Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and Spanish; of the Hebrew, the 
mysteries and obscurities; of the Greek, the articles and 
the precision not only of the appellative but also of the" 
proper nouns; of the Latin, the wealth and elegance; and 
of the Spanish, the good- breeding, politeness, and cour- 
tesy." ' 

An Early Connection with the Hindus . — The Ma- 
layan languages contain also a considerable proportion of 
words borrowed from the Sanskrit, and in this the Tagd-log, 

^ Belacion de las Islas Filipinas, 2d ed., p. 52. 


Bisayan, and Ilocano are included. Whether these words 
were passed along from one Malayan group to another, or 
whether they were introduced by the actual presence and 
power of the Hindu in this archipelago, may be fair ground 
for debate; but the case for the latter position has been so 
well and brilliantly put by Dr. Pardo de Tavera that his 
conclusions are here given in his own words. "The 
words which Tagalog borrowed," he says, " are those which 
signify intellectual acts, moral conceptions, emotions, su- 
perstitions, names of deities, of planets, of numerals of 
high number, of botany, of war and its results and conse- 
quences, and finally of titles and dignities, some animals, 
instruments of industry, and the names of money." 

From the evidence of these works. Dr. Pardo argues for 
a period in the early history of the Filipinos, not merely 
of commercial intercourse, like that of the Chinese, but 
of Hindu political and social domination. " I do not be- 
lieve," he says, "and I base my opinion on the same 
words that I have brought together in this vocabulary, 
that the Hindus were here simply as merchants, but that 
they dominated different parts of the archipelago, where 
to-day are spoken the most cultured languages, — the 
Tagalo, the Visayan, the Pampanga, and the Ilocano; and 
that the higher culture of these languages comes precisely 
from the influence of the Hindu race over the Filipino." 

The Hindus in the Philippines. — " It is impossible to 
believe that the Hindus, if they came only as merchants, 
however great their number, would have impressed them- 
selves in such a way as to give to these islanders the num- 
ber and the kind of words which they did give. These 
names of dignitaries, of caciques, of high functionaries of 
the court, of noble ladies, indicate that all of these high 
positions with names of Sanskrit origin were occupied at 


one time by men who spoke that language. The words of 
a similar origin for objects of war, fortresses, and battle- 
songs, for designating objects of religious belief, for su- 
perstitions, emotions, feelings, industrial and farming 
activities, show us clearly that the warfare, religion, 
literature, industry, and agriculture were at one time in 
the hands of the Hindus, and that this race was effec- 
tively dominant in the Philippines." * 

Systems of Writing among the Filipinos. — When the 
Spaniards arrived in the Philippines, the Filipinos were 
using systems of writing borrowed from Hindu or Javanese 
sources. This matter is so interesting that one can 
not do better than to quote in full Padre Chirino's account, 
as he is the first of the Spanish writers to mention it and 
as his notice is quite complete. 

"So given are these islanders to reading and writing 
that there is hardly a man, and much less a woman, that 
does not read and write in letters peculiar to the island 
of Manila, very different from those of China, Japan, and 
of India, as will be seen from the following alphabet. 

"The vowels are three; but they serve for five, and are, 

xj- ^r=r- 3 

a e,i o, u 

The consonants are no more than twelve, and they serve 
to write both consonant and vowel, in this form. The 
letter alone, without any point either above or below, 
sounds with a. 

1 Another possible explanation of the many Sanslcrit terms which 
are found in the Philippine languages, is that the period of contact 
between Filipinos and Hindus occurred not in the Philippines but in 
Java and Sumatra, whence the ancestors of the Filipinos came. 


Ba ca da ga ha la 

X/ ^ \/ 03 (J^ 2^ 

ma na pa sa ta ya 

Placing the point above, each one sounds with e or with i. 

Bi qui di gui hi 11 

be que de gue he le 

^ m \> c^ g<» ^ 

mi ni pi si ti j^ 

me ne pe se te ye 

Placing the point below, it sounds with or with u. 

, » > >• 9 y 

bo CO do go ho lo 

bu cu du gu hu lu 

V A^ v c^ g^ 1(3^ 

mo no po so to yo 

mu nu pu su tu yu 

For instance, in order to say ' cama,' the two letters alone 


X V 

ca ma 

If to the i there is placed a point above, it will say 

i t/ 

que ma 

If it is given to both below, it will say 

I x/ 

CO mo 

The final consonants are supplied or understood in all 
cases, and so to say ' cantar,' they write 

I e" 

ca - ta 

ba ba 
But with all, and that without many evasions, they make 
themselves understood, and they themselves imderstand 
marvelloxxsly. And the reader supplies, with much skill 
and ease, the consonants that are lacking. They have 
learned from us to write running the lines from the left 
hand to the right, but formerly they only wrote from 
above downwards, placing the first line (if I remember 
rightly) at the left hand, and continuing with the others 
to the right, the opposite of the Chinese and Japanese. . . . 
They write upon canes or on leaves of a palm, using for 
a pen a point of iron. Nowadays in writing not only 


their own but also our letters, they use a feather very 
well cut, and paper like ourselves. 

They have learned our language and pronunciation, and 
write as well as we do, and even better; for they are so 
bright that they learn everything with the greatest ease. 
I have brought with me handwriting with very good and 
correct lettering. In Tigbauan, I had in school a very 
small child, who in three months' time learned, by copy- 
ing from well-written letters that I set him, to write 
enough better than I, and transcribed for me writings of 
importance very faithfully, and without errors or mis- 
takes. But enough of languages and letters; now let us 
return to our occupation with human souls." ^ 

Sanskrit Source of the Filipino Alphabet. — Besides 
the Tagdlog, the Bisaya, Pampango, Pangasinan, and 
Ilocano had alphabets, or more properly syllabaries sim- 
ilar to this one. Dr. Pardo de Tavera has gathered many 
data concerning them, and shows that they were un- 
doubtedly received by the Filipinos from a Sanskrit 

Early Filipino Writings. — The Filipinos used this 
writing for setting down their poems and songs, which 
were their only literature. None of this, however, has 
come down to us, and the Filipinos soon adopted the 
Spanish alphabet, forming the syllables necessary to write 
their language from these letters. As all these have pho- 
netic values, it is still very easy for a Filipino to learn to 
pronounce and so read his own tongue. These old char- 
acters lingered for a couple of centuries, in certain places. 
Padre Totanes ^ tells us that it was rare in 1705 to find a 
person who could use them ; but the Tagbanua, a pagan 

' Relacion de las Islas Filipinas, 2d ed., pp. 58, 59, chap. XVII. 
^ Arte de la Lengua Tagala. 


people on the island of Paragua, use a similar syllabary 
to this day. Besides poems, they had songs which they 
sang as they rowed their canoes, as they pounded the 
rice from its husk, and as they gathered for feast or en- 
tertainment; and especially there were songs for the dead. 
In these songs, says Chirino, they recounted the deeds of 
their ancestors or of their deities. 

Chinese in the Philippines.— Early Trade. — Very dif- 
ferent from the Hindu was the early influence of the Chi- 
nese. There is no evidence that, previous to the Spanish 
conquest, the Chinese settled or colonized in these islands 
at all; and yet three hundred years before the arrival of 
Magellan their trading-fleets were coming here regularly 
and several of the islands were well known to them. One 
evidence of this prehistoric trade is in the ancient Chinese 
jars and pottery which have been exhumed in the vicinity 
of Manila, but the Chinese writings themselves furnish us 
even better proof. About the beginning of the thirteenth 
century, though not earlier than 1205, a Chinese author 
named Chao Ju-kua wrote a work upon the maritime com- 
merce of the Chinese people. One chapter of his work is 
devoted to the Philippines, which he calls the country of 
Mayi.^ According to this record it is indicated that 
the Chinese were familiar with the islands of the archi- 
pelago seven himdred years ago.^ 

1 This name is derived, in the opinion of Professor Blumentritt, 
from Bayi, or Bay, meaning Laguna de Bay. Professor Meyer, in his 
Distribution of the Negritos, suggests an identification from this Chinese 
record, of the islands of Mindanao, Palawan (called Pa-lao-yu) and 
Panay, Negros, Cebu, Leyte, Samar, Bohol, and Luzon. 

^ Through the courtesy of Professor Zulueta, of the Manila Liceo, 
permission was given to use from Chao Ju-kua's work these quota- 
tions, translated from the Chinese manuscript by Professor Blumentritt. 
The English translation is by Mr. P. L. Stangl. 


Chinese Description of the People. — "The country of 
Mayi," says this interesting classic, "is situated to the 
north of Poni (Burney, or Borneo). About a" thousand 
families inhabit the banks of a very winding stream. The 
natives clothe themselves in sheets of cloth resembling 
bed sheets, or cover their bodies with sarongs. (The 
sarong is the gay colored, typical garment of the 
Malay.) Scattered through the extensive forests are copper 
Buddha images, but no one knows how they got there.^ 

" When the mer- 
chant (Chinese) 
ships arrive at 
this port they an- 
chor in front of 
an open place . . . 
? which serves as a 

Filipino Iron Treasure Box. market, Where 

they trade in the 
produce of the coimtry. When a ship enters this port, 
the captain makes presents of white umbrellas (to the 
mandarins). The merchants are obliged to pay this 
tribute in order to obtain the good will of these lords." 
The products of the country are stated to be yellow 
wax, cotton, pearls, shells, betel nuts, and yuta cloth, 
which was perhaps one of the several cloths still woven 
of abacd,, or pifia. The articles imported by the Chinese 
were " porcelain, trade gold, objects of lead, glass beads 
of all colors, iron cooHng-pans, and iron needles." 

The Jfegritos. — Very curious is the accurate mention 
in this Chinese writing, of the Negritos, the first of all 

' " This would confirm," says Professor Blumentritt, " Dr. Pardo 
de Tavera's view that in ancient times the Philippines were under the 
influence of Buddhism from India." 


accounts to be made of the little blacks. "In the in- 
terior of the valleys lives a race called Hai-tan (Aeta). 
They are of low stature, have round eyes of a yellow color, 
curly hair, and their teeth are easily seen between their 
lips. (That is, probably, not darkened by betel-chewing 
or artificial stains.) They build their nests in the treetops 
and in each nest lives a family, which only consists of 
from three to five persons. They travel about in the 
densest thickets of the forests, and, without being seen 
themselves, shoot their arrows at the passers-by; for this 
reason they are much feared. If the trader (Chinese) 
throws them a small porcelain bowl, they will stoop 
down to catch it and then run away with it, shouting 

Increase iiv Chinese Trade. — These junks also visited 
the more central islands, but here traffic was conducted 
on the ships, the Chinese on arrival announcing them- 
selves by beating gongs and the Filipinos coming out to 
them in their light boats. Among other things here 
offered by the natives for trade are mentioned "strange 
cloth," perhaps cinamay or jusi, and fine mats. 

This Chinese trade continued probably quite steadily 
until the arrival of the Spaniards. Then it received an 
enormous increase through the demand for Chinese food- 
products and wares made by the Spaniards, and because 
of the value of the Mexican silver which the Spaniards 
offered in exchange. 

Trade with the Moro Malays of the South. — The spread 
of Mohammedanism and especially the foundation of the 
colony of Borneo brought the Philippines into important 
commercial relations with the Malays of the south. Pre- 
vious to the arrival of the Spaniards these relations seem 
to have been friendly and peaceful. The Mohammedan 


Malays sent their praos northward for purposes of trade, 
and they were also settling in the north Philippines as 
they had in Mindanao. 

When Legaspi's fleet, soon after its arrival, lay near the 
island of Bohol, the " Maestro de Campo " had a hard fight 
with a Moro vessel which had come up for trade, and 
took six prisoners. One of them, whom they call the 
"pilot," was closely interrogated by the Adelantado and 
some interesting information obtained, which is recorded 
by Padre San Augustin.^ Legaspi had a Malay slave in- 
terpreter with him and San Augustin says that Padre 
Urdaneta "knew well the Malayan language." The pilot 
said that "those of Borneo brought for trade with the- 
Filipinos, copper and tin, which was brought to Borneo 
• from China, porcelain, dishes, and bells made in their 
fashion, very different from those that the Christians use, 
and benzoin, and colored blankets from India, and cook- 
ing-pans made in China, and that they also brought iron 
lances very well tempered, and knives and other articles 
of barter, and that in exchange for them they took away 
from the islands gold, slaves, wax, and a kind of small 
seashell which they call 'sijueyes,' and which passes for 
money in the kingdom of Siam and other places; and also 
they carry off some white cloths, of which there is a great 
quantity in the islands." 

Butiian, on the north coast of Mindanao, seems to have 
been quite a trading-place resorted to by vessels from all 
quarters. This country, like many other parts of the 
Philippines, has produced from time immemorial small 
quantities of gold, and all the early voyagers speak of 
the gold earrings and ornaments of the natives. Butiian 
also produced sugarcane and was a trading-port for 

' Conquista de las Islas Filipinas, p. 95. 


slaves. This unfortunate traffic in human life seems to 
have been not unusual, and was doubtless stimulated by 
the commerce with Borneo. Jimks from Siam trading 
with Cebu were also encountered by the Spaniards. 

Result of this Intercourse and Commerce. — This inter- 
course and traffic had acquainted the Filipinos with many 
of the accessories of civilized life long before the arrival of 
the Spaniards. Their chiefs and datos dressed in silks, and 
maintained some splendor of surroundings; nearly the 
whole population of the tribes of the coast wrote and 

Filipino Portable Iron Cannon. 

commxmicated by means of a syllabary; vessels from Lu- 
zon traded as far south as Mindanao and Borneo, al- 
though the products of Asia proper came through the 
fleets of foreigners; and perhaps what indicates more 
clearly than anything else the advance the FiUpinos were 
making through their communication with outside people 
is their use of firearms. Of this point there is no ques- 
tion. Everywhere in the vicinity of Manila, on Lubang, 
in Pampanga, at Cainta and Lagima de Bay, the Span- 
iards encountered forts mounting small cannon, or "lan- 
takas." ' The Filipinos seem to have understood, more- 

1 Relacion de la Conquista de la Isla de Luzon, 1572; in Retana, 
Archivo del Biblidfilo Filipinc, vol. I. 


over, the arts of casting cannon and of making powder. 
The first gun-factory estabUshed by the Spaniards was in 
charge of a Fihpino from Pampanga. 

Early Political and Social Life. — The Barangay. — 
The weakest side of the culture of the early Filipinos was 
their political and social organization, and they were weak 
here in precisely the same way that the now uncivilized 
peoples of northern Luzon are still weak. Their state did 
not embrace the whole tribe or nation; it included simply 
the community. Outside of the settlers in one immedi- 
ate vicinity, all others were enemies or at most foreigners. 
There were in the Philippines no large states, nor even 
great rajas and sultans such as were found in the Malay 
Archipelago, but instead on every island were a multitude 
of small communities, each independent of the other and 
frequently waging war. 

The unit of their political order was a little cluster of 
houses from thirty to one hundred families, called a 
"barangay," and which still exists in the Philippines as 
the "barrio." At the head of each barangay was a chief 
known as the "dato," a word no longer used in the 
northern Phihppines, though it persists among the Moros 
of Mindanao. The powers of these datos within their 
small areas appear to have been great, and they were 
treated with utmost respect by the people. 

The barangays were grouped together in tiny federa- 
tions including about as much territory as the present 
towns, whose affairs were conducted by the chiefs or 
datos, although sometimes they seem to have all been in 
obedience to a single chief, known in some places as the 
"hari," at other times by the Hindu word "raja," or the 
Mohammedan term "sultan." Sometimes the power of 
one of these rajas seems to have extended over the 


whole of a small island, but usually their "kingdoms" 
embraced only a few miles. 

Changes Made by the Spaniards. — The Spaniards, 
in enforcing their authority through the islands, took 
away the real power from the datos, grouping the baran- 
gays into towns, or "pueblos," but making the datos 
"cabezas de barrio," or '' gobernadorcillos." Something 
of the old distinction between the dato, or "principal," 
and the common man may be still represented in the 
"gente illustrada," or the more wealthy, educated, and 
influential class found in each town, and the "gente baja," 
or the poor and uneducated. 

Classes of Filipinos under the Datos. — Beneath the 
datos, according to Chirino and Morga, there were three 
classes of Filipinos; the free persons, or "maharlica," who 
paid no tribute to the dato, but who accompanied him to 
war, rowed his boat when he went on a journey, and at- 
tended him in his house. This class is called by Morga 
" timauas." ' 

Then there was a very large class, who appear to have 
been freedmen or liberated slaves, who had acquired their 
own homes and lived with their families, but who owed 
to dato or maharlica heavy debts of service; to sow and 
harvest in his ricefields, to tend his fish-traps, to row his 
canoe, to build his house, to attend him when he had 
guests, and to perform any other duties that the chief 
might command. These semi-free were called "aliping 
namamahay," and their condition of bondage descended 
to their children. 

Beneath these existed a class of slaves. These were the 
"siguiguiliris," and they were numerous. Their slavery 

' Sucesos de las Filipinas, p. 297. 


arose in several ways. Some were those who as children 
had been captured in war and their lives spared. Some 
became slaves by selling their freedom in times of hunger. 
But most of them became slaves through debt, which de- 
scended from father to son. The sum of five or six pesos 
was enough in some cases to deprive a man of his freedom. 

These slaves were absolutely owned by their lord, who 
could theoretically sell them like cattle; but, in spite of 
its bad possibilities, this Filipino slavery was ordinarily 
not of a cruel or distressing nature. The slaves frequently 
associated on kindly relations with their masters and were 
not overworked. This form of slavery still persists in the 
Philippines among the Moros of Mindanao and Jolo. Chil- 
dren of slaves inherited their parents' slavery. If one 
parent was free and the other slave, the first, third, and 
fifth children were free and the second, fourth, and sixth 
slaves. This whole matter of inheritance of slavery was 
curiously worked out in minute details. 

Life in the Barangay. — Community feeling was very 
strong within the barangay. A man could not leave his 
own barangay for life in another without the consent of 
the community and the payment of money. If a man of 
one barrio married a woman of another, their children 
were divided between the two barangays. The barangay 
was responsible for the good conduct of its members, and 
if one of them suffered an injury from a man outside, the 
whole barangay had to be appeased. Disputes and wrongs 
between members of the same barangay were referred to 
a number of old men, who decided the matter in accord- 
ance with the customs of the tribe, which were handed 
down by tradition.' 

' These data are largely taken from the account of the customs 
of the Tagdlog prepared by Friar Juan de Piasencia, in 1589, at the 


The Religion of the FiUpinos. — The Filipinos on the 
arrival of the Spaniards were fetish-worshipers, but they 
had one spirit whom they believed was the greatest of all 
and the creator or maker of things. The Tagalog called 
this deity Bathala/ the Bisaya, Laon, and the Ilocano, 
Kabunian. They also worshiped the spirits of their an- 
cestors, which were represented by small images called 
"anitos." Fetishes, which are any objects believed to 
possess miraculous power, were common among the people, 
and idols or images were worshiped. Pigafetta describes 
some idols which he saw in Cebu, and Chirino tells us that, 
within the memory of Filipinos whom he knew, they had 
idols of stone, wood, bone, or the tooth of a crocodile, and 
that there were some of gold. 

' They also reverenced animals and birds, especially the 
crocodile, the raven, and a mythical bird of blue or yellow 
color, whch was called by the name of their deity Bathala.^ 
They had no temples or public places of worship, but 
each one had his anitos in his own house and performed 
his sacrifices and acts of worship there. As sacrifices 
they killed pigs or chickens, and made such occasions 
times of feasting, song, and chunkenness. The life of the 

request of Dr. Santiago de Vera, the governor and president of the 
Audiencia. Although there are references to it by the early his- 
torians of the Philippines, this little code did not see the light until 
a few years ago, when a manuscript copy was discovered in the con- 
vent of the Franciscans at ManUa, by Dr. Pardo de Tavera, and was 
by him pubUshed. It treats of slave-holding, penalties for crime, 
inheritances, adoption, dowry, and marriage. {Las Costumbres de los 
Tagdlog en Filipinas, segun el Padre Plasencia, by T. H. Pardo de 
Tavera. Madrid, 1892.) 

> See on this matter Diccionario Mitologico de Filipinas, by Blu- 
mentritt; Retana, Archivo del Biblidfilo Filipino, vol. II. 

2 This word is of Sanskrit origin and is common throughout Malay- 


Filipino was undoubtedly filled with superstitious fears 
and imaginings. 

The Mohammedan Malays. — The Mohammedans out- 
side of southern Mindanao and Jolo, had settled in the 
vicinity of Manila Bay and on Mindoro, Lubang, and 
adjacent coasts of Luzon. The spread of Mohammedan- 
ism was stopped by the Spaniards, although it is nar- 
rated that for a long time many of those living on the 
shores of Manila Bay refused to eat pork, which is for- 
bidden by the Koran, and practiced the rite of circum- 
cision. As late as 1583, Bishop Salazar, in writing to the 
king of affairs in the Philippines, says the Moros had 
preached the law of Mohammed to great numbers in these 
islands and by this preaching many of the Gentiles had 
become Mohammedans; and further he adds, "Those who 
have received this foul law guard it with much persistence 
and there is great difficulty in making them abandon it; 
and with cause too, for the reasons they give, to our 
shame and confusion, are that they were better treated 
by the preachers of Mohammed than they have been by 
the preachers of Christ." ' 

Material Progress of the Filipinos. — The material sur- 
roundings of the Filipino before the arrival of the Span- 
iards were in nearly every way quite as they are to-day. 
The "center of population" of each town to-day, with its 
great church, tribunal, stores and houses of stone and 
wood, is certainly in marked contrast; but the appear- 
ance of a barrio a little distance from the center is 
to-day probably much as it was then. Then, as now, 
the bulk of the people lived in humble houses of bam- 

' Relacion de las Cosas de las Filipinas hecha por Sr. Domingo de' 
Salazar, Primer obispo de dichas islas, 1583; in Retaua, Archivo, 
vol. III. 

te:b: FILIPINO people before 15S1. 107 

boo and nipa raised on piles above the dampness of 
the soil; then, as now, the food was largely rice and the 
excellent fish which abound in river and sea. There were 
on the water the same f amihar bancas and fish corrals, and 
on land the rice fields and cocoanut groves. The Fili- 
pinos had then most of the present domesticated animals, 
— dogs, cats, goats, chickens, and pigs, — and perhaps in 
Luzon the domesticated buffalo, although this animal was 
widely introduced into the Philippines from China after 
the Spanish conquest. Horses came with the Spaniards 
and their numbers were increased by the bringing in of 
Chinese mares, whose importation is frequently mentioned. 

The Spaniards introduced also the cultivation of to- 
bacco, coiTee, arid cacao, and perhaps also the native corn 
of America, the maize, although Pigafetta says they found 
it already growing in the Bisayas. 

The Filipino has been affected by these centuries of 
Spanish sovereignty far less on his material side than he 
has on his spiritual, and it is mainly in the deepening and 
elevating of his emotional and mental life and not in the 
bettering of his material condition that advance has been 




History of the Philippines as a Part of the History of 
the Spanish Colonies. — We have already seen how the 
Phihppines were discovered by Magellan in his search for 
the Spice Islands. Brilliant and romantic as is the story 
of that voyage, it brought no immediate reward to Spain. 
Portugal remained in her enjoyment of the Eastern trade 
and nearly half a century elapsed before Spain obtained 
a settlement in these islands. But if for a time he neg- 
lected the Far East, the Spaniard from the Peninsula 
threw himself with almost incredible energy and devo- 
tion into the material and spiritual conquest of America. 
All the greatest achievements of the Spanish soldier and 
the Spanish missionary had been secured within fifty 
years from the day when Columbus sighted the West 

In order to understand the history of the Philippines, 
we must not forget that these islands formed a part of 
this great colonial empire and were under the same ad- 
ministration; that for over two centuries the Philippines 
were reached through Mexico and to a certain extent 
governed by Mexico; that the same governors, judges, and 
soldiers held office in both hemispheres, passing from 
America to the Philippines and being promoted from the 
Islands to the higher official positions of Mexico and Peru. 
So to understand the rule of Spain in the Philippines, we 
must study the great administrative machinery and the 



great body of laws which she developed for the govern- 
ment of the Indies.' 

Character of the Spanish Explorers. — The conquests 
themselves were largely effected through the enterprise 
and wealth of private individuals; but these men held 
commissions from the Spanish crown, their actions were 
subject to strict royal control, and a large proportion of 
the profits and plunder of their expeditions were paid to 
the royal treasury. Upon some of these conquerors the 
crown bestowed the proud title of " adelantado." The 
Spanish nobility threw themselves into these hazardous 
midertakings with the courage and fixed determination 
born of their long struggle with the Moors. Out of the 
soul-trying circumstances of Western conquest many ob- 
scure men rose, through their brilliant qualities of spirit, 
to positions of eminence and power; but the exalted of- 
fices of viceroy and governor were reserved for the titled 
favorites of the king. 

The Royal Audiencia. — Very early the Spanish court, 
in order to protect its own authority, found it necessary 
to succeed the ambitious and adventurous conqueror by a 
ruler in close relationship with and absolute dependence 
on the royal will. Thus in Mexico, Cortes the conqueror 
was removed and replaced by the viceroy Mendoza, who 
established upon the conquests of the former the great 
Spanish colony of New Spain, to this day the most suc- 
cessful of all the states planted by Spain in America. 

To limit the power of the governor or viceroy, as weU 

' The foundation and character of this great colonial administra- 
tion have been admirably described by the Honorable Bernard Moses, 
United States Philippine Commissioner and the first Secretary of 
Public Instruction, in his work, The Establishment of Spanish Rule in 


as to act as a supreme court for the settlement of actions 
and legal questions, Spain created the " Royal Audiencia." 
This was a body of men of noble rank and learned in the 
law, sent out from Spain to form in each country a co- 
lonial court; but their powers were not alone judicial; 
they were also administrative. In the absence of the 
governor they assumed his duties. 

Treatment of the Natives by the Spanish. — In his treat- 
ment of the natives, whose lands he captured, the Span- 
ish king attempted three things, — first, to secure to the 
colonist and to the crown the advantages of his labor, 
second, to convert the Indians to the Christian religion as 
maintained by the Roman Catholic Church, and third, to 
protect them from cruelty and inhumanity. Edict after 
edict, law after law, issued from the Spanish throne with 
these ends in view. As they stand upon the greatest of 
colonial law-books, the Recopilacion de Leyes de las Indias, 
they display an admirable sensitiveness to the needs of 
the Indian and an appreciation of. the dangers to which 
he was subjected; but in the actual practice these benefi- 
cent provisions were largely useless. 

The first and third of Spain's purposes in her treatment 
of the native proved incompatible. History has shown 
that liberty and enlightenment can not be taken from a 
race with one hand and protection given it with the other. 
All classes of Spain's colonial government were frankly in 
pursuit of wealth. Greed filled them all, and was the 
mainspring of every discovery and every settlement. The 
king wanted revenue for his treasury; the noble and the 
soldier, booty for their private purse; the friar, wealth for 
his order; the bishop, power for his church. All this 
wealth had to come out of the native toiler on the lands 
which the Spanish conqueror had seized; and while noble 


motives were probably never absent and at certain times 
prevailed, yet in the main the native of America and of 
the Philippines was a sufferer under the hand and power 
of the Spaniard. 

" The Encomenderos." — Spain's system of controlling 
the lives and the labor of the Indians was based to a cer- 
tain extent on the feudal system, still surviving in the 
Peninsula at the time of her colonial conquests. The 
captains and soldiers and priests of her successful con- 
quests had assigned to them great estates or fruitful lands 
with their native inhabitants, which they managed and 
ruled for their own profit. Such estates were called first 
" repartimientos." But very soon it became the practice, 
in America, to grant large numbers of Indians to the ser- 
vice of a Spaniard, who had over them the power of a 
master and who enjoyed the profits of their labor. In 
return he was supposed to provide for the conversion of 
the Indians and their religious instruction. Such a grant 
of Indians was called an " encomienda." The "encomen- 
dero" was not absolute lord of the lives and properties of 
the Indians, for elaborate laws were framed for the latter's 
protection. Yet the granting of subjects without the land 
on which they lived made possible their transfer and sale 
from one encomendero to another, and in this way thou- 
sands of Indians of America were made practically slaves, 
and were forced into labor in the mines. 

As we have already seen, the whole system was attacked 
by the Dominican priest. Las Casas, a truly noble char- 
acter in the history of American colonization, and various 
efforts were made in America to Hmit the encomiendas and 
to prevent their introduction into Mexico and Peru ; but 
the great power of the encomendero in America, together 
with the iiifluence of the Church, which held extensive 


encomiendas, had been sufficient to extend the institution, 
even against Las Casas' impassioned remonstrances. Its 
abolition in Mexico was decreed in 1544, but " commis- 
sioners representing the municipaUty of Mexico and the 
rehgious orders were sent to Spain to ask the king 'to re- 
voke at least those parts of the ' New Laws ' which 
threatened the interests of the settlers. By a royal decree 
of October 20, 1545, the desired revocation was granted. 
This action filled the Spanish settlers with joy and the en- 
slaved Indians with despair." ' 

Thus was the institution early established as a part 
of the colonial system and came with the conquerors to 
the Philippines. 

Restrictions on Colonization and Commerce. — For the 
management of all colonial affairs the king created a 
great board, or bureau, known as the "Council of the In- 
dies," which sat in Madrid and whose members were among 
the highest officials of Spain. The Spanish government 
exercised the closest supervision over all colonial matters, 
and colonization was never free. All persons, wares, and 
ships, passing from Spain to any of her colonial posses- 
sions, were obliged to pass through Seville, and this one 
port alone. 

This wealthy ancient city, situated on the river Gua- 
dalquivir in southwestern Spain, was the gateway to the 
Spanish Empire. From this^port went forth the mailed 
soldier, the robed friar, the adventurous noble, and the 
brave and highborn Spanish ladies, who accompanied their 
husbands to such great distances over the sea. And back 
to this port were brought the gold of Peru, the silver of 
Mexico, and the silks and embroideries of China, dis- 
patched through the Philippines. 

' Moses: Establishment of Spanish Ride in America, p. 12. 


It must be observed that all intercourse between Spain 
and her colonies was rigidly controlled by the govern- 
ment. Spain sought to create and maintain an exclusive 
monopoly of her colonial trade. To enforce and direct 
this monopoly, there was at Seville the Commercial 
House, or "Casa de Contratacion." No one could sail 
from Spain to a colonial possession without a permit and 
after government registration. No one could send out 
goods or import them except through the Commercial 
House and upon the payment of extraordinary imposts. 
Trade was absolutely forbidden to any except Spaniards. 
And by her forts and fleets Spain strove to isolate her col- 
onies from the approach of Portuguese, Dutch, or English, 
whose ships, no less daringly manned than those of Spain 
herself, were beginning to traverse the seas in search 
of the plunder and spoils of foreign conquest and trade. 

Summary of the Colonial Policy of Spain. — Spain 
sought foreign colonies, first, for the spoils of accumulated 
wealth that could be seized and carried away at once, and, 
secondly, for the income that could be procured through 
the labor of the inhabitants of the lands she gained. In 
framing her government and . administration of her colo- 
nies, she sought primarily the political enlightenment and 
welfare neither of the Spanish colonist nor the native race, 
but the glory, power, and patronage of the crown. The 
commercial and trade regulations were devised, not to 
develop the resources and increase the prosperity of the 
colonies, but to add wealth to the Peninsula. Yet the 
purposes of Spain were far from being wholly selfish. 
With zeal and success she sought the conversion of the 
heathen natives, whom she subjected, and in this showed 
a humanitarian interest in advance of the Dutch and Eng- 
lish, who rivaled her in colonial empire. 


The colonial ideals under which the policy of Spain was 
framed were those of the times. In the centuries that 
have succeeded, public wisdom and conscience on these 
matters have immeasurably improved. Nations no longer 
make conquests frankly to exploit them, but the public 
opinion of the world demands that the welfare of the co- 
lonial subject be sought and that he be protected from 
official greed. There is great advance still to be made. 
It can hardly be said that the world yet recognizes that a 
stronger people should assist a weaker without assurance 
of material reward, but this is the direction in which the 
most enlightened feeling is advancing. Every undertak- 
ing of the white race, which has such aims in view, is an 
experiment worthy of the most profound interest and 
most solicitous sympathy. 

Result of the Voyage of Magellan and El Cano. — The 
mind of the Spanish adventurer was greatly excited by 
the results of Sebastian del Cano's voyage. Here was the 
opportimity for rich trade and great profit. Numerous 
plans were laid before the king, one of them for the build- 
ing of an Indian trading-fleet and an annual voyage to the 
Moluccas to gather a great harvest of spices. 

Portugal protested against this move until the question 
of her claim to the Moluccas, under the division of Pope 
Alexander, could be settled. The exact longitude of Ter- 
nate west from the line 370 leagues beyond the Verde 
Islands was not well known. Spaniards argued that it 
was less than 180 degrees, and, therefore, in spite of Por- 
tugal's earlier discovery, belonged to them. The pilot, 
Medina, for example, explained to Charles V. that from 
the meridian 370 degrees west of San Anton (the most 
westerly island of the "\''erde group) to the city of Mexico 
was 59 degrees, from Mexico to Navidad, 9 degrees, and 


from this port to Cebu, 100 degrees, a total of only 168 
degrees, leaving a margin of 12 degrees; therefore by the 
pope's decision the Indies, Moluccas, Borneo, Gilolo, and 
the Philippines were Spain's.' A great council of em- 
bassadors and cosmographers was held at Badajoz in 1524, 
but reached no agreement. Spain announced her resolu- 
tion to occupy the Moluccas, and Portugal threatened 
with death the Spanish adventurers who should be found 

The First Expedition to the Philippines. — Spain acted 
immediately upon her determination, and in 1525 dis- 
patched an expedition under Jofre_de Loaisa to reap the 
fruits of Magellan's discoveries.^ The captain of one ves- 
sel was Sebastian del Cano, who completed the voyage of 
Magellan. On his ship sailed Andres de Urdaneta, who 
later became an Augustian friar and accompanied the 
expedition of Legaspi that finally effected the settlement 
of the PhiUppines. Not without great hardship and losses 
did the fleet pass the Straits of Magellan and enter the 
Pacific Ocean. In mid-ocean Loaisa died, and four days 
later the heroic Sebastian del Cano. Following a route 
somewhat similar to that of Magellan, the fleet reached 
first the Ladrone Islands and later the coast of Mindanao. 
From here they attempted to sail to Cebu, but the strong 
northeast monsoon drove them southward to the Mo- 
luccas, and they landed on Tidor the last day of the year 

' Demarcaddn del Maluco, hecha por el maestro Medina, in Docit- 
mentox iniditos, vol. V., p. 552. 

' This and subsequent voyages are given in the Documentos iniditos, 
vol. v., and a graphic account is in Argensola's Conquista de las Islas 
MoliuMS. They are also well narrated in English by Bumey, Dis- 
axoeries in the South Sea, vol. I., chapters V., XII., and XIV. 


The Failure of the Expedition.— The Portuguese 
were at this moment fighting to reduce the native rajas of 
these islands to subjection. They regarded the Spaniards 
as enemies, and each party of Europeans was shortly en- 
gaged in fighting and in inciting the natives against the 
other. The condition of the Spaniards became desperate 
in the extreme, and indicates at what cost of life the con- 
quests of the sixteenth century were made. Their ships 
had become so battered by storm as to be no longer sea- 
worthy. The two officers, who had successively followed 
Loaisa and El Cano in command, had likewise perished. 
Of the 450 men who had sailed from Spain, but 120 now 
survived. These, under the leadership of Hernando de la 
Torre, threw up a fort on the island of Tidor, unable to 
go farther or to retire, and awaited hoped-for succor from 

Relief came, not from the Peninsula, but from Mexico. 
Under the instructions of the Spanish king, in Octo- 
ber, 1527, Cortes dispatched from Mexico a small expedi- 
tion in charge of D. Alvaro de Saavedra. Swept rapidly 
by the equatorial trades, in a few months Saavedra had 
traversed the Carolines, reprovisioned on Mindanao, and 
reached the survivors on Tidor. Twice' they attempted 
to return to New Spain, but strong trade winds blow 
without cessation north and south on either side of the 
equator for the space of more than twelve hundred miles, 
and the northern latitude of calms and prevailing westerly 
winds were not yet known. 

Twice Saavedra beat his way eastward among the 
strange islands of Papua and Melanesia, only to be at 
last driven back upon Tidor and there to die. The sur- 
vivors were forced to abandon the Moluccas. By sur- 
rendering to the Portuguese they were assisted to return 


to Europe by way of Malacca, Ceylon, and Africa, and 
they arrived at Lisbon in 1536, the survivors of Loaisa's 
expedition, having been gone from Spain eleven years. 

The efforts of the Spanish crown to obtain possession 
of the Spice Islands, the Celebes and Moluccas, with their 
coveted products of nutmeg, cinnamon, and pepper, were 
for the time being ended. By the Treaty of Zaragoza 
(1529) the Emperor, Charles V., for the sum of three 
hundred and fifty thousand gold ducats, renounced all 
claim to the Moluccas. For thirteen years the provisions 
of this treaty were respected by the Spaniards, and then 
another attempt was made to obtain a foothold in the 
East Indies. 

The Second Expedition to the Philippines. — The facts 
that disaster had overwhelmed so many, that two oceans 
must be crossed, and that no sailing-route from Asia back 
to America was known, did not deter the Spaniards from 
their perilous conquests; and in 1542 another expedition 
sailed from Mexico, under command of Lopez de Villa- 
lobos, to explore the Philippines and if possible to reach 

Across the Pacific they made a safe and pleasant 
voyage. In the warm waters of the Pacific they sailed 
among those wonderful coral atolls, rings of low shore, 
decked with palms, grouped in beautiful archipelagoes, 
whose appearance has never failed to delight the navi- 
gator, and whose composition is one of the most interest- 
ing subjects known to students of the earth's structure and 
history. Some of these coral islands Villalobos took pos- 
session of in the name of Spain. These were perhaps the 
Pelew Islands or the Carolines. 

At last Villalobos reached the east coast of Mindanao, 
but after some deaths and sickness they sailed again and 


were carried south by the monsoon to the Uttle island 
of Sarangani, south of the southern peninsula of Mindanao. 
The natives were hostile, but the Spaniards drove them 
from their stronghold and made some captures of musk, 
amber, oil, and gold-dust. In need of provisions, they 
planted the maize, or Indian com, the wonderful cereal of 
America, which yields so bounteously, and so soon after 
planting. Food was greatly needed by the Spaniards and 
was very difficult to obtain. 

The Jfaming of the Islands. — Villalobos equipped a 
small vessel and sent it northward to try to reach Cebu. 
This vessel reached the coast of Samar. Villalobos gave 
to the island the name of Filipina, in honor of the Spanish 
Infante, or heir apparent, PhiHp, who was soon to succeed 
his father Charles V. as King Philip the Second of Spain. 
Later in his correspondence with the Portuguese Villalobos 
speaks of the archipelago as Las Fihpinas. Although for 
many years the title of the Islas del Poniente continued 
in use, Villalobos' name of Fihpinas gradually gained place 
and has lived. 

The End of the Expedition. — While on Sarangani 
demands were made by the Portuguese, who claimed 
that Mindanao belonged with the Celebes, that the Span- 
iards should leave. Driven from Mindanao by lack 
of food and hostility of the natives, Villalobos was 
blown southward by storms to Gilolo. Here, after long 
negotiations, the Portuguese compelled him to surrender. 
The survivors of the expedition dispersed, some remain- 
ing in the Indies, and some eventually reaching Spain; 
but Villalobos, overwhelmed by discouragement, died on 
the island of Amboyna. The priest who ministered to 
him in his last hours was the famous Jesuit missionary to 
the Indies, Saint Francis Xavier. 


Twenty-three years were to elapse after the sailing of 
Villalobos' fleet before another Spanish expedition should 
reach the Philippines. The year 1565 dates the perma- 
nent occupation of the archipelago by the Spanish. 

Increase in Political Power of the Church. — Under 
Philip the Second, the champion of ecclesiasticism, the 
Spanish crown cemented the union of the monarchy with 
the church and devoted the resources of the empire, not 
only to colonial acquisition, but to combating the Pro- 
testant revolution on the one hand and heathenism on 
the other. The Spanish king effected so close a imion of 
the church and state in Spain, that from this time on 
churchmen rose higher and higher in the Spanish councils, 
and profoundly influenced the policy and fate of the na- 
tion. The policy of Philip the Second, however, brought 
upon Spain the revolt of the Dutch Lowlands and the 
wars with England, and her struggle with these two 
nations drained her resources both on land and sea, and 
occasioned a physical and moral decline. But while 
Spain was constantly losing power and prestige in Europe, 
the king was extending his colonial domain, lending royal 
aid to the ambitious adventiffer and to the ardent mis- 
sionary friar. Spain's object being to christianize as well 
as to conquer, the missionary became a very important 
figure in the history of every colonial enterprise, and 
these great orders to whom missions were intrusted thus 
became the central institutions in the history of the, 

The Rise of Monasticism, — Monasticism was introduced 
into Europe from the East at the very commencement of 
the Middle Ages. The fundamental idea of the old mo- 
nasticism was retirement from human society in the belief 
that the world was bad and could not be bettered, and 


that men could lead holier lives and better please God by 
forsaking secular employments and family relations, and 
devoting all their attention to purifying their characters. 
The first monastic order in Europe were the Benedictines, 
organized in the seventh century, whose rule and organ- 
ization were the pattern for those that followed. 

The clergy of the church were divided thus into two 
groups, — first, the parish priests, or ministers, who lived 
among the people over whom they exercised the care of 
souls, and who, because they were of the people themselves 
and lived their lives in association with the community, 
were known as the "secular clergy," and second, the 
monks, or "regular clergy," were so called because they 
lived imder the "rule" of their order. 

In the early part of the thirteenth century monasti- 
cism, which had waned somewhat during the preceding 
two centuries, received a new impetus and inspiration 
from the organization of new orders known as brethren 
or "Friars." The idea underlying their organization was 
noble, and above that of the old monasticism; for it was 
the idea of service, of ministry both to the hearts and 
bodies of depressed and suffering men. 

The Dominicans. — The Order of Dominicans was or- 
ganized by Saint Dominic, an Italian, about 1215. The 
primary gbject of its members was to defend the doc- 
trines of the Church and, by teaching and preaching, 
destroy the doubts and protests which in the thirteenth 
century were beginning to disturb the claims of the Cath- 
olic Church and the Papacy. The Dominican friars did 
not live in communities, but traveled about, humbly clad, 
preaching in the villages and towns, and seeking to ex- 
pose and punish the heretic. The mediaeval universities, 
through their study of philosophy and the Roman law, 


were producing a class of men disposed to hold opinions 
contrary to the teachings of the Church. The Dominicans 
realized the importance of these great centers of instruc- 
tion and entered them as teachers and masters, and by 
the beginning of the fifteenth century had made them 
strongholds of conservatism and orthodoxy. 

T7ie Franciscans. — A few years after this organiza- 
tion, the Order of Franciscans was founded by Saint 
Francis of Assisi, of Spain. The aims of this order were 
not only to preach and administer the sacraments, but to 
nurse the sick, provide for the destitute, and alleviate the 
dreadful misery which affected whole classes in the Middle 
Ages. They took vows of absolute poverty, and so hum- 
ble was the garb prescribed by their rule that they went 
barefooted from place to place. 

The MigasUnian Order was founded by Pope Alex- 
ander IV., in 1265, and still other orders came later. 

The Degeneration of the Orders. — Without doubt the 
early ministrations of these friars were productive of great 
good both on the religious and humanitarian sides. But, 
as the orders became wealthy, the friars lost their spiritu- 
ality and their lives grew vicious. By the beginning of 
the sixteenth century the administration of the Church 
throughout Europe had become so corrupt, the economic 
burden of the religious orders so great, and religious 
teaching and belief so material, that the best and noblest 
minds in all coimtries were agitating for reform. 

The Reformation. — In addition to changes in church 
admuiistration, many Christians were demanding a greater 
freedom of religious thinking and radical changes in the 
Church doctrine which had taken form in the Middle Ages. 
Thus, while all the best minds in the Church were united 
in seeking a reformation of character and of admin- 


The sailing of these vessels left Legaspi in Cebu with 
a colony of only one hundred and fifty Spaniards, poorly 
provided with resources, to commence the conquest of the 
Philippines. But he won the friendship and respect of 
the inhabitants, and in 1568 two galleons with reinforce- 
ments arrived from Acapulco. From this time on nearly 
yearly communication was maintained, fresh troops with 
munitions and supplies arriving with each expedition. 

The First Expedition against the Moro Pirates. — Pirates 
of Mindoro. — The Spaniards found the Straits of San 
Bernardino and the Mindoro Sea swarming with the fleets 
of Mohammedan Malays from Borneo and the Jolo Archi- 
pelago. To a race living so continuously upon the water, 
piracy has always possessed irresistible attractions. In 
the days of Legaspi, the island of Mindoro had been par- 
tially settled by Malays from the south, and many of these 
settlements were devoted to piracy, preying especially 
upon the towns on the north coast of Panay. In Janu- 
ary, 1570, Legaspi dispatched his grandson, Juan de 
Salcedo, to punish these marauders.^ 

Capture of Pirate Strongholds. — Salcedo had a force 
of forty Spaniards and a large number of Bisaya. He 
landed on the western coast of Mindoro and took the 
pirate town of Mamburao. The main stronghold of the 
Moros he found to be on the small island of Lubang, 
northwest of Mindanao. Here they had three strong forts 
with high walls, on which were mounted small brass can- 
non, or "lantakas. " Two of these forts were surrounded 
by moats. There were several days of fighting before Lu- 
bang was conquered. The possession of Lubang brought 

' There is an old account of this interesting expedition by one 
who participated. (Relaeion de la Conquisia de la Isla de Luzon, 
Manila, 1572; Retana, Archivo del Bibliofilo Filipino, vol. IV.) 


the Spaniards almost to the entrance of Manila Bay. 
Meanwhile, a captain, Enriquez de Guzman, had dis- 
covered Masbate, Burias, and Ticao, and had landed on 
Luzon in the neighborhood of Albay, called then, " Italon." 
Conquest of the Moro City of Manila. — Expedition 
from Panaij. — Reports had come to Legaspi of an im- 
portant Mohammedail settlement named "May-nila," on 
the shore of a great bay, and a Mohammedan chieftain, 
called Maomat, was procured to guide the Spaniards on- 
their conquest of this region.' For this purpose Legaspi 

straits of Manila. 

sent his field-marshal, Martin de Goiti, with Salcedo, one 
hundred and twenty Spanish soldiers, and fourteen or 
fifteen boats filled with Bisayan allies. They left Panay 
early in May, and, after stopping at Mindoro, came to 
anchor in Manila Bay, off the mouth of the Pasig River. 

The Mohammedan City. — On the south bank of the 
river was the fortified town of the Mohammedan chief- 
tain, Raja Soliman; on the north bank was the town of 
Tondo, under the Raja Alcandora, or Lacandola. Morga^ 
tells us that these Mohammedan settlers from the island 

Morga: Sucesos de las Idas Filipinas, 2d ed., p. 10. 
Siuxsos, de las Islas Filipinas. P. 316. 

2. Araenal 

ii Audicnaia or Court Hcnt&e 

i. Military Uoapital 

5 Vnxi.eraity of ISt.TJwinab 

C Ayvntamiento or Palace 

7 Archbiahop'a Eaiace 

8 / t»ndencia 
J CmsuXate 

I College of Santa FolciioiaTui 

10. Church of 

11. Church of Santo Domingo 

12. Catlied-rnl 

13. College of San Juan de 

14. Church and College < 
Santa Isabel 

15. JHoepital of S Juan de Dioa 

16. Chu-rch and Convent of 
San Avffustin 

17. Ordmi 

18. Church of San FrancUco 



( Aduptod from Buseta Diuclonario 
de loe leloB PUIgilaos.) 



of Borneo had commenced to arrive on the island only a 
few years before the coming of the Spaniards. They had 
settled and married among the Filipino population already 
occupying Manila Bay, and had introduced some of the 
forms and practices of the Mohammedan religion. The 
city of Manila was defended by a fort, apparently on the 
exact sight of the present fort of Santiago. It was built 
of the tnmks of palms, and had embrasures where were 
mounted a considerable number of cannon, or lantakas. 

Capture of the City. — The natives received the for- 
eigners at first with a show of friendliness, but after they 
had landed on the banks of the Pasig, Soliman, with 
a large force, assaulted them. The impetuous Spaniards 
charged, and carried the fortifications, and the natives 
fled, setting fire to their settlement. When the fight was 
over the Spaniards found among the dead the body of 
a Portuguese artillerist, who had directed the defense. 
Doubtless he was one who had deserted from the Portu- 
guese garrison far south in the Indian archipelago to cast 
in his fortunes with the Malays. It being the commence- 
ment of the season of rains and typhoons, the Spaniards 
decided to defer the occupation of Manila, and, after ex- 
ploring Cavite harbor, they returned to Panay. 

A year was spent in strengthening their hold on the 
Bisayas and in arranging for their conquest of Luzon. 
On Masbate was placed a friar and six soldiers, so small 
was the number that could be spared. 

Founding of the Spanish City of Manila. — With a force 
of 280 men Legaspi returned in the spring of 1571 to the 
conquest of Luzon. It was a bloodless victory. The 
Filipino rajas declared themselves vassals of the Spanish 
king, and in the months of May and June the Spaniards 
established themselves in the present site of the city. 


At once Legaspi gave orders for the reconstruction of 
the fort, the building of a palace, a convent for the Au- 
gustinian monks, a church, and 150 houses. The bounda- 
ries of this city followed closely the outlines of the Tagalog 
city "Maynila," and it seems probable that the location 
of buildings then established have been adhered to until 
the present time. This settlement appeared so desirable 
to Legaspi that he at once designated it as the capital of 
the archipelago. Almost immediately he organized its 
governing assembly, or ayuntamiento. 

The First Battle on Manila Bay. — In spite of their 
ready submission, the rajas, Soliman and Lacandola, did 
not yield their sovereignty without a struggle. They were 
able to secure assistance in the Tagdlog and Pampanga 
settlements of Macabebe and Hagonoy. A great fleet of 
forty war-praos gathered in palm-lined estuaries on the 
north shore of Manila Bay, and came sweeping down the 
shallow coast to drive the Spaniards from the island. 
Against them were sent Goiti and fifty men. The protec- 
tive mail armor, the heavy swords afid lances, the horrible 
firearms, coupled with the persistent courage and fierce^ 
resolution of the Spanish soldier of the sixteenth century, 
swept back this native armament. The chieftain Soliman 
was killed. 

The Conquest of Central Luzon. — Goiti continued his 
marching and conquering northward until nearly the 
whole great plain of central Luzon, that stretches from 
Manila Bay to the Gulf of Lingayen, lay submissive before 
him. A little later the raja Lacandola died, having ac- 
cepted Christian baptism, and the only powerful resist- 
ance on the island of Luzon was ended. 

Goiti was sent back to the Bisayas, and the command 
of the army of Luzon fell to Salcedo, the brilliant and 


daring grandson of Legaspi, at this time only twenty-two 
years of age. This young knight led his command up the 
Pasig River. Cainta and Taytay, at that time impor- 
tant Tagalog towns, were conquered, and then the coun- 
try south of Laguna de Bay. The town of Cainta was 
fortified and defended by small cannon, and although 
Salcedo spent three days in negotiations, it was only 
taken by storm, in which four hundred Filipino men and 
women perished.' From here Salcedo marched over the 
mountains to the Pacific coast and south into the Cam- 
arines, where he discovered the gold mines of Paracale and 

At about this time the Spaniards conquered the Cuyos 
and Calamianes islands and the northern part of Paragua. 

Exploration of the Coast of Northern Luzon. — In 1572, 
Salcedo, with a force of only forty-five men, sailed north- 
ward from Manila, landed in Zambales and Pangasinan, 
and on the long and rich Ilocos coast effected a permanent 
submission of the inhabitants. He also visited the coast 
farther north, where the great and fertile valley of the 
Cagayan, the largest- river of the archipelago, reaches to 
the sea. From here he continued his adventurous journey 
down the Pacific coast of Luzon to th6 island of Polillo, 
and returned by way of Lagima de Bay to Manila. 

Death of Legaspi. — He arrived in September, 1572, to 
find that his grandfather and commander, Legaspi, had 
died a month before (August 20, 1572). After seven 
years of labor the conqueror of difficulties was dead, but 
almost the entire archipelago had been added to the crown 
of Spain. Three hundred years of Spanish dominion se- 
cured little more territory than that traversed and pacified 

Conquista de la Isla de Imzon, p. 24. 



by the conquerors of these early years. In spite of their 
slender forces, the daring of the Spaniards induced them 
to follow a policy of widely extending their power, effect- 
ing settlements, and enforcing submission wherever rich 
coasts and the gathering of population attracted them. 

Within a single year's 
time most of the coast 
country of Luzon had 
been traversed, hnport- 
ant positions seized, and 
the inhabitants por- 
tioned out in encomien- 
das. On the death of 
Legaspi, the command 
fell to Guido de Lave- 

Reasons for this Easy 
Conquest of the Philip- 
pines. — The explana- 
tion of how so small a 
number of Europeans 
could so rapidly and suc- 
cessfully reduce to sub- 
jection the inhabitants 
of a territory like thePhil- 
ippines, separated into 
so many different islands, is to be found in several things. 
First. — The expedition had a great leader, one of those 
knights combining sagacity with resolution, who glorify 
the brief period when Spanish prestige was highest. No 
policy could ever be successful in the Philippines which 
did not depend for its strength upon giving a measure of 
satisfaction to the Filipino people. Legaspi did this. He 

Legaspi Monument, Luneta. 


appears to have won the native datos, treating them with 
consideration, and holding out to them the expectations 
of a better and more prosperous era, which the sovereignty 
of the Spaniard would bring. Almost from the beginning, 
the natives of an island already reduced flocked to his 
standard to assist in the conquest of another. The small 
forces of the Spanish soldiers were augmented by hun- 
dreds of Filipino allies. 

Second. — Toother reason is found in the wonderful 
courage and great fighting power of the Spanish soldier. 
Each man, splendidly armored and weaponed, deadly with 
either sword or spear, carrying in addition the arquebus, 
the most efficient firearm of the time, was equal in combat 
to many natives who might press upon him with their 
naked bodies and inferior weapons. 

Third. — Legaspi was extremely fortunate in his cap- 
tains, who included such old campaigners as the field- 
marshal Martin de Goiti, who had been to the Philippines 
before with Villalobos, and such gallant youths as Salcedo, 
one of the most attractive military figures in aU Spanish 

Fourth. — In considering this Spanish conquest, we 
must understand that the islands were far more sparsely 
inhabited than they are to-day. The Bisayan islands, 
the rich Camarines, the island of Luzon, had, in Legaspi's 
time, only a small fraction of their present great popula- 
tions. This population was not only small, but it was also 
extremely disunited. Not only were the great tribes sep- 
arated by the differences of language, but, as we have 
already seen, each tiny community was practically inde- 
pendent, and the power of a dato very limited. There 
were no great princes, with large forces of fighting re- 
tainers whom they could call to arms, such as the Portu- 


guese had encountered among the Malays south in the 

Fifth. — But certainly one of the greatest factors in the 
yielding of the Filipino to the Spaniard was the preaching 
of the missionary friars. No man is so strong with an 
unenlightened and barbarous race as he who claims power 
from God. And the preaching of the CathoUc faith, with 
its impressive and dramatic services, its holy sacraments, 
its power to arrest the attention and to admit at once 
the rude mind into the circle of its ministry, won the 
heart of the Fihpino. Without doubt he was ready and 
eager for a loftier and truer religious belief and ceremo- 
nial. There was no powerful native priesthood to oppose 
the introduction of Christianity. The preaching of the 
faith and the baptism of converts proceeded almost as 
rapidly as the marching of Salcedo's soldiers. 

The Dangers of the Spanish Occupation. — Silch condi- 
tions assured the success of the Spanish occupation, pro- 
vided the small colony could be protected from outside 
attacks. But even from the beginning the position of 
this little band of conquerors was perilous. Their numbers 
were small and of necessity much scattered, and their 
only source of succor lay thousands of miles away, across 
the greatest body of water on the earth, in a land itself a 
colony newly wrested from the hand of the Indian. Across 
the narrow waters of the China Sea, only a few days' 
distant, even in the slow-sailing junks, lay the teeming 
shores of the most populous country in the world, in those 
days not averse to foreign conquest. 

Attempt of the Chinese under Limahong to Capture 
Manila. — Activity of the Southern Chinese. — It was 
from the Chinese that the first heavy blow fell. The 
southeastern coast of China, comprising the provinces of 


Kwangtung and Fukien, has always exhibited a restless- 
ness and passion for emigration not displayed by other 
parts of the country. From these two provinces, through 
the ports of Amoy and Canton, have gone those Chinese 
traders and cooUes to be found in every part of the East 
and many other countries of the world. Two hundred 
years before the arrival of the Spaniards, Chinese junks 
traversed the straits and seas and visited regularly the 
coast of Mindanao. 

Limahong's Expedition to the Philippines. — This 
coast of China has always been notorious for its piracy. 
The distance of the capital at Peking and the weakness of 
the provincial viceroys have made impossible its suppres- 
sion. It was one of these bold filibusters of the China Sea, 
called Limahong, who two years after the death of Legaspi 
attempted the conquest of the Philippines. The strong- 
hold of this corsair was the island of Pehon, where he 
fortified himself and developed his power. 

Here, reports of the prosperous condition of Manila 
reached him, and he prepared a fleet of sixty-two war- 
junks, with four thousand soldiers and sailors. The ac- 
counts even state that a large number of women and 
artisans were taken on board to form the nucleus of the 
settlement, as soon as the Spaniards should be destroyed. 
In the latter part of November, 1574, this powerful fleet 
came sweeping down the western coast of Luzon and on 
the 29th gathered in the httle harbor of Mariveles, at the 
entrance to Manila Bay. Eight miles south of Manila is 
the town of Paranaque, on an estuary which affords a 
good landing-place for boats entering from the bay. Here 
on the night following, Limahong put ashore six hundred 
men, under one of his generals, Sioco, who was a Japanese. 

The Attach upon Manila. — From here they marched 


rapidly up the beach and fell furiously upon the city. 
Almost their first victim was the field-marshal Goiti. The 
fort of Manila was at this date a weak affair, without 
ditches or escarpment, and it was here that the struggle 
took place. The Spaniards, although greatly outnum- 
bered, were able to drive back the Chinese; but they 
themselves lost heavily. Limahong now sent ashore heavy 
reinforcements, and prepared to overwhelm the garrison. 
The Spaniards were saved from defeat by the timely ar- 
rival of Salcedo with fifty musketeers. From his station 
at Vigan he had seen the sails of Limahong's fleet, cruising 
southward along the Luzon coast, and, suspecting that so 
great an expedition could have no other purpose than the 
capture of Manila, he embarked in seven small boats, and 
reached the city in six days, just in time to participate in 
the furious battle between the Spaniards and the entire 
forces of the Chinese pirate. The result was the complete 
defeat of the Chinese, who were driven back upon their 
boats at Paranaque. 

The Result of Limahong's Expedition. — Although 
defeated in his attack on Manila, Limahong was yet de- 
termined on a settlement in Luzon, and, sailing northward, 
he landed in Pangasinan and began constructing fortifi- 
cations at the mouth of the river Lingayen. The Span- 
iards did not wait for him to strengthen himself and to dis- 
pute with them afresh for the possession of the island, but 
organized in March aji expedition of two hundred and fifty 
Spaniards and fifteen hundred Filipinos under Salcedo. 
They landed suddenly in the Gulf of Lingayen, burned 
the entire fleet of the Chinese, and scattered a part of the 
forces in the surroimding movmtains. The rest, though, 
hemmed in by the Spaniards, were able to construct small 
boats, in which they escaped from the islands. 


Thus ended this formidable attack, which threatened 
for a time to overthrow the power of Spain in the East. 
It was the beginning, however, of important relations 
with China. Before Limahong's escape a junk arrived 
from the viceroy of Fukien, petitioning for the delivery of 
the Chinese pirate. Two Augustinian friars accompanied 
his junk back to China, eager for such great fields of 
missionary conquest. They carried letters from Lavezares 
inviting Chinese friendship and intercourse. 

Beginning of a New Period of Conquest. — In the spring 
of 1576, Salcedo died at Vigan, at the age of twenty- 
seven. With his death may be said to close the first 
period of the history in the Philippines, — that of the 
Conquest, extending from 1565 to 1576. For the next 
twenty-five years the ambitions of the Spaniards were not 
content with the exploration of this archipelago, but there 
were greater and more striking conquests, to which the 
minds of both soldier and priest aspired. 

Despite the settlement with Portugal, the rich Spice 
Islands to the south still attracted them, and there 
were soon revealed the fertile coasts of Siam and 
Cambodia, the great empire of China, the beautiful 
island of Formosa, and the Japanese archipelago. These, 
with their great populations and wealth, were more allur- 
ing fields than the poor and sparsely populated coasts 
of the Philippines. So, for the next quarter of a cen- 
tury, the policy of the Spaniards in the Philippines was 
not so much to develop these islands themselves, as to 
make them a center for the commercial and spiritual 
conquest of the Orient.' 

' See the letter of Bishop Salazar to the king, explaining his mo- 
tives in coming to the Philippines. Retana, Bihlioteca FiUpina, vol. 
I.; Relacion, 1583, p. 4, 


A Treaty with the Chinese. — The new governor arrived 
in the Islands in August, 1575. He was Dr. Francisco 
La-Sande. In October there returned the ambassadors 
who had been sent to China by Lavezares. The viceroy 
of Fukien had received them with much ceremony. He 
had not permitted the friars to remain, but had forwarded 
the governor's letter to the Chinese emperor. In Febru- 
ary following came a Chinese embassy, granting a port of 
the empire with which the Spaniards could trade. This 
port, probably, was Amoy, which continued to be the 
chief port of communication with China to the present 

It was undoubtedly commerce and not the mission- 
aries that the Chinese desired. Two Augustinians at- 
tempted to return with this embassy to China, but the 
Chinese on leaving the harbor of Manila landed on the 
coast of Zambales, where they whipped the missionaries, 
killed their servants and interpreter, and left the friars 
bound to trees, whence they were rescued by a small 
party of Spaniards who happened to pass that way. 

Sir Francis Drake's Noted Voyage. — The year 1577 is 
notable for the appearance in the East of the great Eng- 
lish sea-captain, freebooter, and naval hero, Francis Drake. ' 
England and Spain, at this moment, while not actually at 
war, were rapidly approaching the conflict which made 
them for centuries traditional enemies. Spain was the 
champion of Roman ecclesiasticism.- Her king, Philip the 
Second, was not only a cruel bigot, but a politician of 
sweeping ambition. His schemes included the conquest 
of France and England, the extermination of Protestant- 
ism, and the subjection of Europe to his own and the 
Roman authority. 

The English people scented the danger from afar, and 

• CONQUEST AND SETTLEMENT, 1565-1600. 145 

while the two courts nominally maintained peace, the dar- 
ing seamen of. British Devon were quietly putting to sea 
in their swift and terrible vessels, for the crippling of 
the Spanish power. The history of naval warfare records 
no more reckless adventures than those of the English 
mariners during this period. Audacity could not rise 

Drake's is the most famous and romantic figure of 
them all. In the year 1577, he sailed from England 
with the avowed purpose of sweeping the Spanish Main. 
He passed the Straits of Magellan, and came up the 
western coast of South America, despoiling the Spanish 
shipping from Valparaiso to Panama. Thence he came 
on across the Pacific, touched the coast of Mindanao, and 
turned south to the Moluccas. 

The Portuguese had nominally annexed the Moluccas 
in 1522, but at the time of Drake's visit they had been 
driven from Ternate, though still holding Tidor. Drake 
entered into friendly relations with the sultan of Ternate, 
and secured a cargo of cloves. From here he sailed boldly 
homeward, daring the Portuguese fleets, as he had defied 
the Spanish, and by way of Good Hope returned to 
England, his fleet the first after Magellan's to circum- 
navigate the globe. 

A Spanish Expedition to Borneo. — The appearance of 
Drake in the Moluccas roused La-Sande to ambitious 
action. The attraction of the southern archipelagoes was 
overpowering, and at this moment the opportunity seemed 
to open to the governor to force southward his power. 
One of the Malay kings of Borneo, Sirela, arrived in Ma- 
nila, petitioning aid against his brother, and promising to 
acknowledge the sovereignty of the king of Spain over the 
island of Borneo. La-Sande went in person to restore 


this chieftain to power. He had a fleet of galleys and 
frigates, and, according to Padre Gaspar de»San Augustin, 
more than fifteen hundred Filipino bowmen from Pangasi- 
nan, Cagayan, and the Bisayas accompanied the expedition. 
He landed on the coast of Borneo, destroyed the fleet of 
praos and the city of the usurper, and endeavored to se- 
cure Sirela in his principality. Sickness among his fleet 
and the lack of provisions forced him to return to Manila. 

The First Attack upon the MoroS of Jolo. — On his re- 
turn he sent an officer against the island of Jolo. This 
officer forced the Joloanos to recognize his power, and 
from there he passed to the island of Mindanao, where he 
further enforced obedience upon the natives. This was 
the beginning of the Spanish expeditions against the Mo- 
ros, which had the effect of arousing in these Mohamme- 
dan pirates such terrible retaliatory vengeance. Under 
La-Sande the conquest of the Camarines was completed by 
Captain Juan Chaves and the city of Nueva Caceres 

The Appointment of Governor Ronquillo. — It was the 
uniform policy of the Spanish government to limit the 
term of office of the governor to a short period of years. 
This was one of the futile provisions by which Spain at- 
tempted to control both the ambition and the avarice of 
her colonial captains. But Don Gonzalo Ronquillo had 
granted to him the governorship of the Philippines for 
life, on the condition of his raising and equipping a force 
of six hundred in Spain, largely at his own expense, for 
the better protection and pacification of the archipelago. 
This Ronquillo did, bringing his expedition by way of 
Panama. He arrived in April, 1580, and although he 
died at the end of three years, his rule came at an impor- 
tant time. 


The Spanish and the Portuguese Colonies Combined. — 

In 1580, Philip II. conquered and annexed to Spain the 
kingdom of Portugal, and with Portugal came necessarily 
to the Spanish crown those rich eastern colonies which 
the valor of Da Gama and Albuquerque had won. Portu- 
gal rewon her independence in 1640, but for years Manila 
was the capital of a colonial empire, extending from Goa 
in India to Formosa. 

Events of Ronquillo's Rule. — Ronquillo, under orders 
from the crown, entered into correspondence with the 
captain of the Portuguese fortress on the island of Tidor, 
and the captain of Tidor petitioned Ronquillo for assist- 
ance in reconquering the tempting island of Ternate. 
Ronquillo sent south a considerable expedition, but after, 
arriving in the Moluccas the disease of beri-beri in the 
Spanish camp defeated the undertaking. Ronquillo also 
sent a small armada to the coasts of Borneo and Malacca, 
where a limited amount of pepper was obtained. 

The few years of Ronquillo's reign were in other ways 
important. A colony of Spaniards was established at 
Oton, on the island of Panay, which was given the name 
of Ar^valo (Iloilo). And. under Ronquillo was pacified 
for the first time the great valley of the Cagayan. At the 
mouth of the river a Japanese adventurer, Tayfusa, or 
Tayzufu, had established himself and was attempting the 
subjugation of this important part of northern Luzon. 
Ronquillo sent against him Captain Carreon, who expelled 
the intruder and established on the present site of Lao-lo 
the city of Nueva Segovia. Two friars accompanied this 
expedition and the occupation of this valley by the Span- 
iards was made permanent. 

The First Conflicts between the Church and the State. — 
In March, 1581, there arrived the first Bishop of Manila, 



Domingo de Salazar. Almost immediately began those 

conflicts between the spiritual and civil 

authorities, and between bishop and the 

regular orders, which have filled to such 

an extent the history of the islands. The 

bishop was one of those authoritative, 

ambitious, and arrogant characters, so 

typical in the history of the Church. It 

was largely due to his protests against 

the autocratic power of the governor that 

the king was induced to appoint the first 

Audiencia. The character and power of 

these courts have already been explained. 

The president and judges arrived the year 

following the death of Ronquillo, and the 

Dr. Santi- 
ago deVera, 
became act- 
ing gover- 
nor during the succeeding 
five years. 

In 1587, the first Domini- 
cans, fifteen in number, ar- 
rived, and founded their 
celebrated mission, La Pro- 
vincia del Santisimo Ro- 

Malay Shield. 


Increasing Strength of the Malays. — De Vera continued 
the policy of his predecessors and another fruitless attack 
was made on Ternate in 1585. The power of the Malay 
people was increasing, while that of the Europeans was 
decreasing. The sultans had expelled their foreign masters, 



and neither Spaniard nor Portuguese were able to effect 
the conquest of the Moluccas. There were uprisings of 
the natives in Manila and in Cagayan and Ilocos. 

The Decree of 1589. — Affairs in the Islands did not 
yet, however, suit Bishop Salazar, and as the representa- 
tive of both governor and bishop, the Jesuit, Alonso 
Sanchez, was dispatched in 1586 
to lay the needs of the colony 
before the king. Philip was ap- 
parently impressed with the 
, necessity of putting the gov- 
ernment of the Islands upon a 
better adminstrative basis. To 
this end he published the im- 
portant decree of 1589. 

The governor now became a 
paid officer of the crown, at a 
salary of ten thousand ducats. 
For the proper protection of 
the colony and the conquest of 
the Moluccas, a regular force 
of four hundred soldiers ac- 
companied the governor. His 
powers were extended to those of 
an actual viceregent of the king, 
and the Audiencia was abolished. 
The man selected to occupy this important post was Don 
Gomez Perez Dasmarinas, who arrived with the new con- 
stitution in May, 1590. So great was the chagrin of the 
bishop at the abolition of the Audiencia and the increase 
of the governor's power, that he himself set out for Spain 
to lay his wishes before the court. 

The Missionary Efforts of the Friars. — Twenty-four 


Franciscans came with Dasmarinas and the presence of 
the three orders necessitated the partition of the Islands 
among them. The. keenest rivalry and jealousy existed 
among them over the prosecution of missions in still more 
foreign lands. To the missionaries of this age it seemed 
a possible thing to convert the great and conservative 
nations of China and Japan to the Western religion. 

In the month of Dasmarinas' arrival, a company of 
Dominicans attempted to found a mission in China, and, 
an embassy coming from Japan to demand vassalage from 
the Philippines, four of the newly arrived Franciscans ac- 
companied the Japanese on their return. 

A year later, in 1592, another embassy from the king 
of Cambodia arrived, bringing gifts that included two ele- 
phants, and petitioning for succor against the king of Siam. 
This was the beginning of an alliance between Cambodia 
and the Philippines which lasted for many years, and 
' which occasioned frequent military aid and many efforts 
to convert that country. 

Death of Dasmarinas. — But the center of Dasmarinas' 
ambitions was the effective conquest of the East Indies 
and the extension of Spanish power and his own rule 
through the Moluccas. With this end in view, for three 
years he made preparations. For months the shores were 
lined with the yards of the shipbuilders, and the great 
forests of Bulacan fell before the axes of the Indians. 
More than two hundred vessels, "galeras," "galeotas," 
and "virrayes," were built, and assembled at Cavite. 

In the fall of 1593, the expedition, consisting of over 
nine hundred Spaniards, Filipino bowmen and rowers, 
was ready. Many of the Filipinos, procured to row these 
boats, were said to have been slaves, purchased through 
the Indian chiefs by the Spanish encomenderos. The 


governor sent forward this great fleet under the command 
of his son, Don Luis, and in the month of October he him- 
self set sail in a galley with Chinese rowers. But on the 
night of the second day, while off the island of Maricaban, 
the Chinese oarsmen rose against the Spaniards, of whom 
there were about forty on the ship, and killed almost the 
entire number, including the governor. They then es- 
caped in the boat to the Ilocos coast and thence to China. 

The murder of this active and illustrious general was a 
determining blow to the ambitious projects for the con- 
quest of the East Indies. Among other papers which 
Dasmarifias brought from Spain was a royal cedula giving 
him power to nominate his successor, who proved to be 
his son, Don Luis, who after some difficulty succeeded 
temporarily to his father's position. 

Arrival of the Jesuits. — In June, 1595, there arrived 
Don Antonio de Morga, who had been appointed assessor 
and lieutenant-governor of the Islands, to succeed Don 
Luis. With Morga came the first Jesuit missionaries. He 
was also the bearer of an order granting to the Jesuits the 
exclusive privilege of conducting missions in China and 
Japan. The other orders were forbidden to pass outside 
the Islands. 

An attempt to Colonize Mindanao. — In the year 1596, 
the Captain Rodriguez de Figueroa received the title of 
governor of Mindanao, with exclusive right to colonize the 
island for "the space of two lives." He left Iloilo in 
April with 214 Spaniards, two Jesuit priests, and many 
natives. They landed in the Rio Grande of Mindanao, 
where the defiant dato, Silonga, fortified himself and re- 
sisted them. Almost immediately Figueroa rashly ven- 
tured on shore and was killed by Moros. Reinforcements 
were sent under Don Juan Ronquillo, who, after nearly 


bringing the datos to submission, abandoned all he had 
gained. The Spaniards burned their forts on the Rio 
Grande and retired to Caldera, near Zamboanga, where 
they built a presidio. 

Death of Franciscans in Japan. — The new governor, 
Don Francisco Tello'de Guzman, arrived on June 1, 1596. 
He had previously been treasurer of the Casa de Contrata^ 
cion in Seville. Soon after his arrival an important and 
serious tragedy occurred in Japan. The ship for Acapulco 
went ashore on the Japanese coast and its rich cargo was 
seized by the feudal prince where the vessel sought assist- 
ance. The Franciscans had already missions in these 
islands, and a quarrel existed between them and the 
Portuguese Jesuits over this missionary field. The latter 
succeeded in prejudicing the Japanese court against the 
Franciscans, and when they injudiciously pressed for the 
return of the property of the wrecked galleon, "San 
Felipe," the emperor, greedy for the rich plunder, and 
exasperated by their preaching, met their petitions with 
the sentence of death. They were horribly crucified at 
the port of Nagasaki, February 5, 1597. This emperor 
was the proud and cruel ruler, Taycosama. He was 
planning the conquest of the Philippines themselves, 
when death ended his plans. 

The First Archbishop in the Philippines. — Meanwhile 
the efforts of Salazar at the Spanish court had effected 
further important changes for the Islands. The reestab- 
lishment of the Royal Audiencia was ordered, and his own 
position was elevated to that of archbishop, with the 
three episcopal sees of Ilocos, Cebu, and the Camarines. 
He did not Uve to assume this office, and the first arch- 
bishop of the Philippines was Ignacio Santibaiiez, who also 
died three months after his arrival, on May 28, 1598. 


Reestablishment of the Audiencia. — The Audiencia was 
reestablished with great pomp and ceremony. The royal 
seal was borne on a magnificently caparisoned horse to the 
cathedral, where a Te Deum was chanted, and then to 
the Casas Reales, where was inaugurated the famous court 
that continued without interruption down to the end of 
Spanish rule. Dr. Morga was one of the first oidores, and 
the earliest judicial record which can now be found in the 
archives of this coiu-t is a sentence bearing his signatm-e. 

The Rise of Moro Piracy. — The last years of De Guz- 
man's governorship were filled with troubles ominous for 
the future of the Islands. The presidio of Caldera was 
destroyed by the Moros. Following this victory, in the 
year 1599, the Moros of Jolo and Maguindanao equipped 
a piratical fleet of fifty caracoas, and swept the coasts of 
the Bisayas. Cebu, Negros, and Panay were ravaged, 
their towns burned, and their inhabitants carried off as 

The following year saw the return of a larger and still 
more dreadful expedition. The people of Panay aban- 
doned their towns and fled into the mountains, under the 
belief that these terrible attacks had been inspired by the 
Spaniards. To check these pirates, Juan Gallinato, with 
a force of two himdred Spaniards, was sent against Jolo, 
but, hke so many expeditions that followed his, he ac- 
compUshed nothing. The inabihty of the Spaniards 
was now revealed and the era of Moro piracy had be- 
gun. "From this time until the present day" (about 
the year 1800), wrote Zuniga, "these Moros have not 
ceased to infest our colonies; innumerable are the Indians 
they have captured, the towns they have looted, the 
rancherias they have destroyed, the vessels they have 
taken. It seems as if God has preserved them for 



vengeance on the Spaniards that they have not been 
able to subject them in two hundred years, in spite 
of the expeditions sent against them, the armaments 
sent almost very year to pursue them. In a very 
little while we conquered all the islands of the Philip- 
pines; but the little island of Jolo, a part of Mindanao, 

Moro Piao. 

and other islands near by we have not been able to 
subjugate to this day." ' 

Battle at Mariveles with the Dutch. — In October, 1600, 
two Dutch vessels appeared in the Islands; it was the 
famous expedition of the Dutch admiral. Van Noort. 
They had come through the Straits of Magellan, on a voy- 
age around the world. The Dutch were in great need of 
provisions. As they were in their great enemy's colony, 
they captured and sunk several boats, Spanish and Chi- 

' Zuiiiga: Historia de Fib'pinas, pp. 195, 196. 


nese, bound for Manila with rice, poultry, palm-wine, and 
other stores of food. At Mariveles, a Japanese vessel 
from Japan was overhauled. Meanwhile in Manila great 
excitement and activity prevailed. The Spaniards fitted 
up two galleons and the "Oidor" Morga himself took com- 
mand with a large crew of fighting men. 

On November 14, they attacked the Dutch, whose 
crews were greatly reduced to only eighty men on both 
ships. The vessel commanded by Morga ran down the 
flagship of Van Noort, and for hours the ships lay side 
by side while a hand-to-hand fight raged on the deck and 
in the hold. The ships taking fire, Morga disengaged 
his ship, which was so badly shattered that it sank, with 
great loss of life; but Morga and some others reached the 
little island of Fortuna. Van Noort was able to extin- 
guish the fire on his vessel, and escape from the Islands, 
lie eventually reached Holland. His smaller vessel was 
captured with its crew of twenty-five men, who were all 
hung at Cavite.* 

Other Troubles of the Spanish. — In the year 1600, two 
ships sailed for Acapulco, but one went down off the 
Catanduanes and the other was shipwrecked on the La- 
drones. " On top of all other misfortunes, Manila suffered, 
in the last months of this government, a terrible earth- 
quake, which destroyed many houses and the church of 
the Jesuits." ^ 

The Moros, the Dutch, anxieties and losses by sea, the visi- 
tations of God, — how much of the history of the seventeenth 
century in the Philippines is filled with these four things! 

' Both Van Noort and Morga have left us accounts of this sea-fight, the 
former in his journal, Description of the Failsome Voyage Made Bound 
the World, and the latter in his famous, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. 

^ Montero y Vidal: Historia de Filipinas, vol. I., p. 199. 



Condition of the Archipelago at the Beginning of the 
Seventeenth Century. — The Spanish Rule Completely 
Established. — At the close of the sixteenth century the 
Spaniards had been in possession of the Phihppines for a 
generation. In these thirty-five years the most striking 
of all the results of the long period of Spanish occupation 
were accomplished. The work of these first soldiers and 
missionaries established the limits and character of Span- 
ish rule as it was to remain for 250 years. Into this first 
third of a century the Spaniard crowded all his heroic 
feats of arms, exploration, and conversion. Thereafter, 
down to 1850, new fields were explored, and only a few 
new tribes Christianized. 

The survey of the archipelago given by Morga soon after 
1600 reads like a narrative of approximately modern 
conditions. It reveals to us how great had been the 
activities of the early Spaniard and how small the achieve- 
ments of his countrymen after the seventeenth century 
began. All of the large islands, except Paragua and the 
Moro country, were, in that day, under encomiendas, their 
inhabitants paying tributes and for the most part pro- 
fessing the Catholic faith. 

The smaller groups and islets were almost as thor- 
oughly exploited. Even of the little Catanduanes, lying 
off the Pacific coast of Luzon, Morga could say, "They 
are well populated with natives, — a good race, all en- 



comended to Spaniards, with doctrine and churches, and 
an alcalde-mayor, who does justice among them." 

He says of the Babuyanes at the extreme north of the 
archipelago, " They are not encomended, nor is tribute col- 
lected among them, nor are there Spaniards among them, 
because they are of little reason and politeness, and there 
have neither been Christians made among them nor have 
they justices." They continued in this condition until a 
few years before the end of Spanish rule. In 1591, how- 
ever, the Babuyanes had been given in encomienda to 
Esteban de la Serna and Francisco Castillo. They are 
put as having two thousand inhabitants and five hundred 
" tributantes," but all unsubdued ("todos algados"). 

On some islands the hold of the Spaniards was more ex- 
tensive in Morga's day than at a later time. Then the is- 
land of Mindoro was regarded as important, and in the 
early years and decades of Spanish power appears to have 
been populous along the coasts. Later it was desolated 
by the Moro pirates and long remained wild and almost 
uninhabited except by a shifting population from the 
mainland of Luzon. 

The Encomiendas. — The first vessels that followed the 
expedition of Legaspi had brought orders from the king that 
the Islands should be settled, and divided in encomiendas 
to those who had conquered and won them.' On this in- 
struction, Legaspi had given the Filipinos in encomienda to 
his captains and soldiers as fast as the conquest proceeded. 

We are fortunate to have a review of these encomiendas, 
made in 1591, about twenty-five years after the system 
was introduced into the Islands.^ There were then 267 

' Relacion de la Conquista de Luzon, 1572, p. Ij. 
^ Relacion de las Encomiendas, existentes en Filipinas, Retana, 
Archive del Biblidfilo Filipino, vol. IV. 


encomiendas in the Philippines, of which thirty-one were 
of the king, and the remainder of private persons. 

Population under the Encomiendas- — From the enu- 
meration of these encomiendas, we learn that the most 
populous parts of the archipelago were La Laguna, with 
24,000 tributantes -and 97,000 inhabitants, and the Cam- 
arines, which included all the Bicol territory, and the Ca- 
tanduanes, where there were 21,670 tributantes and a 
population of over 86,000. In the vicinity of Manila and 
Tondo, which included Cavite and Marigondon, the south 
shore of the bay, and Pasig and Taguig, there were col- 
lected 9,410 tributes, and the population was estimated at 
about 30,000. In Ilocos were reported 17,130 tributes 
and 78,520 souls. 

The entire valley of the Cagayan had been divided 
among the soldiers of the command which had effected the 
conquest. In the list of encomiendas a few can be recog- 
nized, such as Yguig and Tuguegarao, but most of the 
names are not to be found on maps of to-day. Most of 
the inhabitants were reported to be "rebelhous" (algados), 
and some were apparently the same wild tribes which 
still occupy all of this water-shed, except the very banlis 
of the river; but none the less had the Spaniards divided 
them off into "repartimentos." One soldier had even 
taken as an encomienda the inhabitants of the upper 
waters of the river, a region which is called in the Relacion 
" Pugao," with little doubt the habitat of the same Igor- 
rote tribe as the Ipugao, who still dwell in these moim- 
tains. The upper valley of the Magat, or Nueva Vizcaya, 
does not appear to have been occupied and probably was 
not until the missions of the eighteenth century. 

The population among the Bisayan islands was quite 
surprisingly small, considering its present proportions. 


Masbate, for example, had but 1,600 souls; Burias, a like 
number- ; the whole central group, leaving out Panay, only 
15,833 tributes, or about 35,000 souls. There was a single 
encomienda in Butiian, Mindanao, and another on the 
Caraga coast. There were a thousand tributes collected 
in the encomienda of Cuyo, and fifteen hundred in Cala- 
mianes, which, says the Relacion, included " los negrillos," 
probably the mixed Negrito population of northern 

The entire population under encomiendas is set down as 
166,903 tributes, or 667,612 souls. This is, so far as 
known, the earliest enumeration of the population of the 
Philippines. Barring the Igorrotes of northern Luzon 
and the Moros and other tribes of Mindanao, it is a fair 
estimate of the number of the Filipino people three hun- 
dred years ago. 

It will be noticed that the numbers assigned to single 
encomenderos in the Philippines were large. In America 
the number was limited. As early as 1512, King Ferdi- 
nand had forbidden any single person, of whatever rank 
or grade, to hold more than three hundred Indians on one 
island.' But in the Phihppines, a thousand or twelve 
hundred "tributantes" were frequently held by a single 

Condition of the Filipinos under the Encomiendas. — 
Frequent Revolts. — That the Filipinos on many of these 
islands bitterly resented their condition is evidenced by 
the frequent uprisings and rebellions. The encomenderos 
were often extortionate and cruel, and absolutely heedless 
of the restrictions and obligations imposed upon them by 
the Laws of the Indies. Occasionally a new governor, 

' Ordenanzas . . . para la Reparticion de -los Indios de la Isla Es- 
panola, in Documentos Ineditas, vol. I., p. 236. 


under the first impulse of instructions from Mexico or 
Spain, did something to correct abuses. Revolts were 
almost continuous during the year 1583, and the condition 
of the natives very bad, many encomenderos regarding 
them and treating them almost as slaves, and keeping 
them at labor to the destruction of their own crops and 
the misery of their famiUes. Gov. Santiago de Vera 
reached the Islands the following year and made a charac- 
teristic attempt to improve the system, which is thus 
related by Zuiiiga: — 

" As soon as he had taken possession of the government, 
he studied to put into effect the orders which he brought 
from the king, to punish certain encomenderos, who had 
abused the favor they had received in being given en- 
comiendas, whereby he deposed Bartolome de Ledesma, 
encomendero of Abuyo (Leyte), and others of those most 
culpable, and punished the others in proportion to the 
offenses which they had committed, and which had been 

" In the following year of 1585, he sent Juan de Morones 
and Pablo de Lima, with a well equipped squadron, to 
the Moluccas, which adventure was as unfortunate as 
those that had preceded it, and they returned to Manila 
without having been able to take the fortress of Ternate. 
The governor felt it very deeply that the expedition had 
failed, and wished to send another armada in accordance 
with the orders which the king had given him; but he 
could not execute this because the troops from New Spain 
did not arrive, and because of the Indians, who lost no 
occasion which presented itself to shake off the yoke of 
the Spaniards. 

" The Pampangos and many inhabitants of Manila con- 
federated with the Moros of Borneo, who had come for 


trade, and plotted to enter the city by night, set it on 
fire, and, in the confusion of the conflagration, slay all 
the Spaniards. This conspiracy was discovered through 
an Indian woman, who was married to a Spanish soldier, 
and measures to meet the conspiracy were taken, before 
the mine exploded, many being seized and suffering ex- 
emplary punishment. 

" The islands of Samar, Ybabao, and Leyte were also in 
disturbance, and the encomendero of Dagami, pueblo of 
Leyte, was in peril of losing his life, because the Indians 
were incensed by his thievings in the collection of tribute, 
which was paid in wax, and which he compelled them to 
have weighed with a steelyard which he had made double 
the legal amount, and wanted to kill him. They would 
have done so if he had not escaped into the mountains 
and afterwards passed by a banca to the island of Cebu. 
The governor sent Captain Lorenzo de la Mota to pacify 
these disturbances; he made some punishments, and with 
these everything quieted down." ' 

Three years later, however, the natives of Leyte were 
again in revolt. In 1589 Cagayan rose and killed many 
Spaniards. The revolt seems to have spread from here to 
the town of Dingras, Ilocos, where the natives rose against 
the collectors of tribute, and slew six Spaniards of the 
pueblo of Fernandina. (Zuiiiga, Historia de Filipinas, 
p. 165.) ' 

Effects of the Spanish Government. — The Spanish oc- 
cupation had brought ruin and misery to some parts of 

' Historia de Filipinas, p. 157, et sq. 

' Among other documents, which throw a most unfavorable light 
upon the condition of the Filipinos under the encomiendas, is the 
letter to the king from Domingo de Salazar, the first bishop of the 
Philippines, which describes the conditions about 1583. 


the country. Salazar describes with bitterness the evil 
condition of the Filipinos. In the rich fields of Bulacan 
and Pampanga, great gangs of laborers had been im- 
pressed, felling the forests for the construction of the 
Spanish fleets and manning these fleets at the oars, on 
voyages which took them for four and six months from 
their homes. The governor, Don Gonzalez de Ronquillo, 
had forced many Indians of Pampanga into the mines of 
Ilocos, taking them from the sowing of their rice. Many 
had died in the mines and the rest returned so enfeebled 
that they could not plant. - Hunger and famine had de- 
scended upon Pampanga, and on the encomienda of Guido 
de Lavazares over a thousand had died from starvation.' 

The Taxes. — The taxes were another source of abuse. 
Theoretically, the tax upon Indians was limited to the 
" tributo," the sum of eight reales (about one dollar) yearly 
from the heads of all families, payable either in gold or in 
produce of the district. But in fixing the prices of these 
commodities there was much extortion, the encomenderos 
delaying the collection of the tribute until the season of 
scarcity, when prices were high, but insisting then on the 
same amount as at harvest-time. 

The principal, who occupied the place of the former 
dato, or "maharlica," like the gobernadorcillo of recent 
times, was responsible for the collecting of the tribute, and 
his lot seems to have been a hard one. " If they do not 
give as much as they ask, or do not pay for as many 
Indians as they say there are, they abuse the poor prin- 
cipal, or throw him into the pillory (cepo de cabeza), be- 
cause all the encomenderos, when they go to make col- 
lections, take their pillories with them, and there they keep 

' Domingo de Salazar, Relacion de las Cosas de las Filipinas, 1583, 
p. 5, in Retana Archives, vol. 3, 


him and torment him, until forced to give all they ask. 
They^are even said to take the wife and daughter of the 
principal, when he can not be found. Many are the prin- 
cipales who have died under these torments, according to 

Salazar further states that he has known natives to be 
sold into slavery, in default of tribute. Neither did they 
impose upon adults alone, but " they collect tribute from 
infants, the aged and the slaves, and many do not marry 
because of the tribute, and others slay their children." ' 

Scarcity of Food. — ■ Salazar further charges that the 
alcaldes mayores (the alcaldes of provinces), sixteen in 
number, were all corrupt, and, though their salaries were 
small, they accumulated fortunes. For further enumera- 
tion of economic ills, Salazar details how prices had evilly 
increased. In the first years of Spanish occupation, food 
was abundant. There was no lack of rice, beans, chickens, 
pigs, venison, buffalo, fish, cocoanuts, bananas, and other 
fruits, wine and honey; and a little money bought much. 
A hundred gantas (about three hundred pints) of rice 
could then be bought for a toston (a Portuguese coin, 
worth about a half -peso), eight to sixteen fowls for a like 
amount, a fat pig for from four to six reales. In the 
year of his writing (about 1583), products were scarce 
and prices exorbitant. Rice had doubled, chickens were 
worth a real, a good pig six to eight pesos. Population 
had decreased, and whole towns were deserted, their in- 
habitants having fled into the hills. 

General Improvement under Spanish Rule. — This is one 
side of the picture. It probably is overdrawn by the 
bishop, who was jealous of the civil authority and who 
began the first of those continuous clashes between the 

' Eelacion, pp. 13, 14. 


church and poUtical power in the Philippines. Doubt- 
less if we could see the whole character of Spanish rule 
in these decades, we should see that the actual condition 
of the Filipino had improved and his grade of culture 
had arisen. No one can estimate the actual good that 
comes to a people in being brought under the power of a 
government able to maintain peace and dispense justice. 
Taxation is sometimes grievous, corruption without ex- 
cuse; but almost anything is better than anarchy. 

Before the coming of the Spaniards, it seems unques- 
tionable that the Filipinos suffered greatly under two ter- 
rible grievances that inflict barbarous society, — in the first 
place, warfare, with its murder, pillage, and destruction, 
not merely between tribe and tribe, but between town 
and town, such as even now prevails in the wild 
mountains of northern Luzon, among the primitive Ma- 
layan tribes; and in the second place, the weak and poor 
man was at the mercy of the strong and rich. 

The establishment of Spanish sovereignty had certainly 
mitigated, if it did not wholly remedy, these conditions. 
" All of these provinces," Morga could write, " are pacified 
and are governed from Manila, having alcaldes mayores, 
corregidors, and lieutenants, each one of whom governs in 
his district or province and dispenses justice. The chief- 
tains (principales), who formerly held the other natives in 
subjection, no longer have power over them in the manner 
which they tyrannically employed, which is not the least 
benefit these natives have received in escaping from such 
slavery." ' 

Old Social Order of the Filipinos but Little Disturbed. — 
Some governors seem to have done their utmost to im- 
prove the condition of the people and to govern thera 

' Sucesos de las Fitipinas, p. 3.34. 


well. Santiago de Vera, as we have seen, even went so 
far as to commission the worthy priest. Padre Juan 
de Plasencia, to investigate the customs and social organ- 
ization of the Filipinos, and to prepare an accoimt of 
their laws, that they might be more suitably governed. 
This brief code- — for so it is — was distributed to 
alcaldes, judges, and encomenderos, with orders to pat- 
tern their decisions in accordance with Filipino custom.' 

In ordering local affairs, the Spaniards to some extent 
left the old social order of the Filipinos undisturbed. 
The several social classes were gradually suppressed, and 
at the head of each barrio, or small settlement, was 
appointed a head, or cabeza de barangay. As these 
barangayes were grouped into pueblos, or towns, the 
former datos were appointed captains and goberna- 

The Payment of Tribute. — The tribute was introduced 
in 1570.^ It was supposed to be eight reales or a peso of 
silver for each family. Children under sixteen and those 
over sixty were exempt. In 1590 the amount was raised 
to ten reales. To this was added a real for the church, 
known as "sanctorum," and, on the organization of the 
towns, a real for the caja de communidad or municipal 
treasury. ' Under the encomiendas the tribute was paid 
to the encomenderos, except on the royal encomiendas; 
but after two or three generations, as the encomiendas 
were suppressed, these collections went directly to the 
insular treasury. There was, in addition to the tribute, 
a compulsory service of labor on roads, bridges, and 

' Las Costumbres de los Tagdloes en Filipinas segun el Padre Pla- 
sencia. Madrid, 1892. 

^ Blumeutritt: Organization Communale des Indigines des Philip- 
pines, traduis de V Allemand, par A. Hugot. 1881. 

168 The Philippines. 

public works, known as the "corvee," a feudal term, or 
perhaps more generally as the "polos y servicios." Those 
discharging this enforced labor were called "polistas." 

Conversion of the Filipinos to Christianity. — The popu- 
lation had been very rapidly Christianized. All accounts 
agree that almost no difhculty was encountered in baptiz- 
ing the more advanced tribes. "There is not in these 
islands a province," says Morga, "which resists conver- 
sion and does not desire it." * Indeed, the Islands seem 
to have been ripe for the preaching of a higher faith, 
either Christian or Mohammedan. For a time these two 
great rehgions struggled together in the vicinity of Ma- 
nila,^ but at the end of three decades Spanish power 
and religion were alike established. Conversion was 
delayed ordinarily only by the lack of sufficient numbers 
of priests. We have seen that this conversion of the 
people was the work of the missionary friars. In 1591 
there were 140 in the Islands, but the Relacion de Enco- 
miendas calls for 160 more to properly supply the peoples 
which had been laid under tribute. 

Coming of the Friars. — The Augustinians had been the 
first to come, accompanying Legaspi. Then came the 
barefooted friars of the Order of Sauit Francis. The first 
Jesuits, padres Antonio Sedeno and Alonzo Sanchez, came 
with the first bishop of the Islands, Domingo de Salazar, 
in 1580. They came apparently without resources. Even 
their garments brought from Mexico had rotted on the 
voyage. They found a little, poor, narrow house in a 
suburb of Manila, called Laguio (probably Concepcion). 
"So poorly furnished was it," says Chirino, "that the 
same chest which held their books was the table on which 

' Sucesos de las Filipinas, p. 332. 
^ See Salazar's relation on this point. 


they ate. Their food for many days was rice, cooked in 
water, without salt or oil or fish or meat or even an egg, 
or anything else except that sometimes as a regalo they 
enjoyed some salt sardines." ^ After the Jesuits, came, as 
we have seen, the friars of the Dominican order, and lastly 
the Recollects, or unshod Augustinians. 

Division of the Archipelago among the Religious Orders. 
— The archipelago was districted among these mission- 
ary bands. The Augustinians had many parishes in the 
Bisayas, on the Ilocano coast, some in Pangasinan, and all 
of those in Pampanga. The Dominicans had parts of 
Pangg,sinan and all of the valley of Cagayan. The Fran- 
ciscans controlled the Camarines and nearly all of southern 
Luzon, and the region of Laguna de Bay. All of these 
orders had convents and monasteries both in the city of 
Manila and in the country roimd about. The imposing 
churches of brick and stone, which now characterize nearly 
every pueblo, had not in those early decades been erected; 
but Morga tells us that "the churches and monasteries 
were of wood, and well built, with furniture and beautiful 
ornaments, complete service, crosses,' candlesticks, and 
chalices of silver and gold." ^ 

The First Schools. — Even in these early years there 
seem to have been some attempts at the education of the 
natives. The friars had schools in reading and writing 
for boys, who were also taught to serve in the church, to 
sing, to play the organ, the harp, guitar, and other instru- 
ments. We must remember, however, that the Filipino 
before the arrival of the Spaniard had a written language, 
and even in pre-Spanish times there must have been in- 
struction given to the child. The type of humble school, 

' C;hirino: Relacion, pp. 19, 20. 
2 Morga, p. 329. 


that is found to-day in remote barrioSj conducted by an 
old man or woman, on the floor or in the yard of a home, 
where the ordinary family occupations are proceeding, 
probably does not owe its origin to the Spaniards, but 
dates from a period before their arrival. The higher edu- 
cation established. by the Spaniards appears to have been 
exclusively for the children of Spaniards. In 1601 the 
Jesuits, pioneers of the Roman Catholic orders in educa- 
tion, established the College of San Jos6. 

Establishment of Hospitals. — The city early had nota- 
ble foundations of charity. The high mortality which 
visited the Spaniards in these islands and the frequency 
of diseases early called for the establishment of institu- 
tions for the orphan and the invaUd. In Morga's time 
there were the orphanages of San Andres and Santa 
Potenciana. There was the Royal Hospital, in charge of 
three Franciscans, which burned in the conflagration of 
1603, but was reconstructed. There was also a Hospital 
of Mercy, in charge of Sisters of Charity from Lisbon and 
the Portuguese possessions of India. 

Close by the Monastery of Saint Francis stood then, 
where it stands to-day, the hospital for natives, San Juan 
de Dios. It was of royal patronage, but founded by a 
friar of the Franciscan order, Juan Clemente. "Here," 
says Morga, " are cured a great number of natives of all 
kinds of sicknesses, with much charity and care. It has 
a good house and offices of stone, and is administered by 
the barefooted religious of Saint Francis. Three priests 
are there and four lay-brethren of exemplary life, who, 
with the doctors, surgeons, and apothecaries, are so dex- 
terous and skilled that they work with their hands mar- 
velous cures, both in medicine and surgery." ' 

' jSucesos de las Filipians, p. 323. 


Mortality among the Spaniards. — Mortality in the Phil- 
ippines in these years of conquest was frightfully high. 
The waste of life in her colonial adventures, indeed, drained 
Spain of her best and most vigorous manhood. In the 
famous old English collection of voyages, published by 
Hakluyt in 1598, there is printed a captured Spanish let- 
ter of the famous sea-captain, Sebastian Biscaino, on the 
Philippine trade. Biscaino grieves over the loss of life 
which had accompanied the conquest of the Philippines, 
and the treacherous climate of the tropics. "The coun- 
try is very . unwholesome for us Spaniards. For within 
these 20 years, of 14,000 which have gone to the Philip- 
pines, there are 13,000 of them dead, and not past 1,000 
of them left alive." ^ 

The Spanish Population. — The Spanish population of 
the Islands was always small, — at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century certainly not more than two thou- 
sand, and probably less later in the century. Morga 
divides them into five classes: the prelates and ecclesi- 
astics; the encomenderos, colonizers, and conquerors; sol- 
diers and officers of war and marine ; merchants and men 
of business; and the officers of his Majesty's govern- 
ment. "Very few are living now," he says, "of those 
first conquistadores who won the land and effected 
the conquest with the Adelantado Miguel Lopez de Le- 
gaspi." ^ 

The Largest Cities. — Most of this Spanish population 
dwelt in Manila or in the five other cities which the Span- 

' The Principal Navigations, Voiages, Trafjiques and Discoveries of 
the English Nation, . . by Richard Hakluyt, Master of Artes and 
sometime Student of Christ Church in Oxford. Imprinted at London, 
1598. Vol. I., p. 560. 

^ Svcesos de las Fili-pinas, p. 347. 


iards had founded in the first three decades of their oc- 
cupation. These were as follows : — • 

Th& City of IN'ueva Segovia, at the mouth of the 
Cagayan, was founded in the governorship of Ronquillo, 
when the valley of the Cagayan was first occupied and the 
Japanese colonists, who had settled there, were expelled. 
It had at the beginning of the seventeenth century two 
hundred Spaniards, living in houses of wood. There was 
a fort of stone, where some artillery was mounted. Be- 
sides the two hundred Spanish inhabitants there were one 
hundred regular Spanish soldiers, with their . officers and 
the alcalde mayor of the province. Nueva Segovia was 
also the seat of a bishopric which included all northern 
Luzon. The importance of the then promising city has 
long ago disappeared, and the pueblo of Lallo, which marks 
its site, is an insignificant native town. 

The City of Jfueva Caceres, in the Camarines, was 
founded by Governor La-Sande. It, too, was the seat 
of a bishopric, and had one himdred Spanish inhabi- 

The Cities of Cebu and Iloilo. — In the Bisayas were 
the Cities of the Holy Name of God (Cebu), and on the 
island of Panay, Arevalo (or Iloilo). The first maintained 
something of the importance attaching to the first Spanish 
settlement. It had its stone fort and was also the seat of 
a bishopric. It was visited by trading-vessels from the 
Moluccas, and by permit of the king enjoyed for a time 
the unusual privilege of sending annually a ship loaded 
with merchandise to New Spain. Arevalo had about 
eighty Spanish inhabitants, and a monastery of the 

The City of Fernandina, or Vigan, which Salcedo 
had founded, was nearly without Spanish inhabitants. 


Still, it was the political center of the great Ilocano coast, 
and it has held this position to the present day. 

Manila. — But all of these cities were far surpassed in 
importance by the capital on the banks of the Pasig. 
The wisdom of Legaspi's choice had been more than 
justified. Manila, at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, was unquestionably the most important Euro- 
pean city of the East. As we have already seen, in 1580 
Portugal had been annexed by Spain and with her had 
come all the Portuguese possessions in India, China, and 
Malaysia. After 1610, the Dutch were almost annually 
warring for this colonial empire, and Portugal regained 
her independence in 1640. But for the first few years of 
the seventeenth century, Manila was the political mistress 
of an empire that stretched from Goa to Formosa and 
embraced all those coveted lands which for a century and 
a half had been the desire of European states. 

The governor of the Philippines was almost an inde- 
pendent king. Nominally, he was subordinate to the 
viceroy of Mexico, but practically he waged wars, con- 
cluded peaces, and received and sent embassies at his own 
discretion. The kingdom of Cambodia was his ally, and 
the states of China and Japan were his friends. 

The Commercial Imyportance of Manila. — Manila was 
also the commercial center of the Far East, and the en- 
trepot through which the kingdoms of eastern Asia ex- 
changed their wares. Here came great fleets of junks 
from China laden with stores. Morga fills nearly two 
pages with an enumeration of their merchandise, which 
included all manner of silks, brocades, furniture, pearls 
and gems, fruits, nuts, tame buffalo, geese, horses and 
mules, all kinds of animals, " even to birds in cages, some 
of which talk and others sing, and which they make per- 


form a thousand tricks; there are innumerable other gew- 
gaws and knickknacks, which among Spaniards are in 
much esteem." ' 

Each year a fleet of thirty to forty vessels sailed with 
the new moon in March. The voyage across the China 
Sea, rough with the monsoons, occupied fifteen or twenty 
days, and the fleet returned at the end of May" or the 
beginning of June. Between October and March there 
came, each year, Japanese ships from Nagasaki which 
brought wheat, silks, objects of art, and weapons, and 
took away from Manila the raw silk of China, gold, deer 
horns, woods, honey, wax, palm-wine, and wine of Castile. 

From Malacca and India came fleets of the Portuguese 
subjects of Spain, with spices, slaves, Negroes and Kafirs, 
and the rich productions of Bengal, India, Persia, and 
Turkey. From Borneo, too, came the smaller craft of the 
Malays, who from their boats sold the fine pahn mats, the 
best of which still come from Cagayan de Sulu and Borneo, 
slaves, sago, water-pots and glazed earthenware, black 
and fine. From Siam and Cambodia also, but less often, 
there came trading-ships. Manila was thus a great em- 
porium for all the countries of the East, the trade of 
which seems to have been conducted largely by and 
through the merchants of Manila. 

Trade with Mexico and Spain Restricted. — The com- 
merce between the Philippines, and Mexico and Spain, 
though it was of vast importance, was limited by action of 
the crown. It was a coimnerce which apparently ad- 
mitted of infinite expansion, but the shortsighted mer- 
chants and manufacturers of the Peninsula clamored 
against its development, and it was subjected to the 
severest limitations. Four galleons were at first main- 

' Sucesos de las Filipinas, p. 352. 


tained for this trade, which were dispatched two at a 
time in successive years from Manila to the port of Aca- 
pulco, Mexico. The letter on the Philippine trade, already 
quoted, states that these galleons were great ships of six 
hundred and eight hundred tons apiece.' They went 
" very strong with soldiers," and they carried the annual 
mail, reenforcements, and supplies of Mexican silver for 
trade with China, which has remained the commercial 
currency of the East to the present day. Later the num- 
ber of galleons was reduced to one. 

The Rich Cargoes of the Galleons. — The track of the 
Philippine galleon lay from Luzon northeastward to about 
the forty-second degree of latitude, where the westerly 
winds prevail, thence nearly straight across the ocean to 
Cape Mendocino in northern California, which was dis- 
covered and mapped by Biscaino in 1602. Thence the 
course lay down the western coast of North America 
nearly three thousand miles to the port of Acapulco. 

We can imagine how carefully selected and rich in 
quality were the merchandises with which these solitary 
galleons were freighted, the pick of all the rich stores 
which came to Manila. The profits were enormous, — 
six and eight hundred per cent. Biscaino wrote that 
with two hundred ducats invested in Spanish wares and 
some Flemish commodities, he made fourteen himdred 
ducats ; but, he added, in 1588 he lost a ship, — robbed 
and burned by Englishmen. On the safe arrival of these 
ships depended how much of the fortunes of the colony! 

Capture of the Galleons. — For generations these gal- 
leons were probably the most tempting and romantic 
prize that ever aroused the cupidity of privateer. The 
first to profit by this rich booty was Thomas Cavendish, 

' Laws of the Indies, VIII., 4.5, 46. 



who in 1584 came through the Straits of Magellan with a 
fleet of five vessels. Like Drake before him, he ravaged 
the coast of South America and then steered straight 
away across the sea to the Moluccas. Here he acquired 
information about the rich commerce of the Philippines and 
of the yearly voyage of the galleon. Back across the Pa- 
cific went the fleet of Cavendish for the coast of California. 
In his own narrative he tells how he beat up and 

Capture of a Galleon (fiom an old print). 

down between Capes San Lucas and Mendocino until the 
galleon, heavy with her riches, appeared. She fell into 
his hands almost without a fray. She carried one hun- 
dred and twenty-two thousand pesos of gold and a great 
and rich store of satins, damask, and musk. Cavendish 
landed the Spanish on the California coast, burned the 
"Santa Anna," and then returned to the Philippines and 
made an attack upon the shipyard of Iloilo, but was re- 


pulsed. He sent a letter to the governor at Manila, boast- 
ing of his capture, and then sailed for the Cape of Good 
Hope and home. 

There is an old story that tells how his seaworn ships 
came up the Thames, their masts hung with silk and 
damask sails. From this time on the venture was less 
safe. In 1588 there came to Spain the overwhelming 
disaster of her history, — the destruction of the Great 
Armada. From this date her power was gone, and her 
name was no longer a terror on the seas. English free- 
booters controlled the oceans, and in 1610 the Dutch 
appeared in the East, never to withdraw. 

The City of Manila Three Hundred Years Ago. — We 
can hardly close this chapter without some further ref- 
erence to the city of Manila as it appeared three hundred 
years ago. Morga has fortunately left us a detailed de- 
scription from which the following points in the main are 
drawn. As we have already seen, Legaspi had laid out 
the city on the blackened site of the town and fortress 
of the Mohammedan prince, which had been destroyed in 
the struggle for occupation. He gave it the same extent 
and dimensions that it possesses to this day. 

Like other colonial capitals in the Far East, it was 
primarily a citadel and refuge from attack. On the 
point beween the sea and the river Legaspi had built the 
famous and permanent fortress of Santiago. In the time 
of the great Adelantado it was probably only a wooden 
stockade, but imder the governor Santiago de Vera it was 
built up of stone. Cavendish (1587) describes Manila 
as "an unwalled town and of no great strength," but 
under the improvements and completions made by Das- 
marifias about 1590 it assumed much of its present ap- 
pearance. Its guns thoroughly commanded the entrance 


to the river, Pasig and made the approach of hostile boats 
from the harbor side impossible. 

It is noteworthy, then, that all the assaults that have 
been made upon the city, from that of Limahong, to those 
of the British in 1763, and of the Americans in 1898, 
have been directed against the southern waU by an ad- 
vance from Paranaque. Dasmariiias also inclosed the 
city with a stone wall, the base from which the present 
noble rampart has arisen. It had originally a width of 
from seven and a half to nine feet. Of its height no 
figure is given. Morga says simply that with its but- 
tresses and turrets it was sufficiently high for the purposes 
of defense. 

Th& Old Fort. — There was a stone fort on the south 
side facing Ermita, known as the Fortress of Our Lady of 
Guidance; and there were two or more bastions, each with 
six pieces of artillery, — St. Andrew's, now a powder mag- 
azine at the southeast corner, and S|. Gabriel's, over- 
looking the Parian district, where the Chinese were settled. 

The three principal gates to the city, with the smaller 
wickets and posterns, which opened on the river and sea, 
were regularly closed at night by the guard which made 
the rounds. At each gate and wicket was a permanent 
post of soldiers and artillerists. 

The Plaza de Armas adjacent to the fort had its ar- 
senal, stores, powder-works, and a foundry for the cast- 
ing of guns and artillery. The foimdry, when established 
by Ronquillo, was in charge of a Pampangan Indian called 

The Spanish Buildings of the City. — The buildings 
of the city, especially the Casas Reales and the churches and 
monasteries, had been durably erected of stone. Chirino 
claims that the hewing of stone, the burning of lime, and 


the training of native and Chinese artisans for this build- 
ing, were the work of the Jesuit father, Sedeno. He him- 
self fashioned the first clay tiles and built the first stone 
house, and so urged and encouraged others, himself direct- 
ing, the building of public works, that the city, which a 
little before had been solely of timber and cane, had be- 
come one of the best constructed and most beautiful in 
the Indies/ He it was also who sought out Chinese 
painters and decorators and ornamented the churches with 
images and paintings. 

Within the walls, there were some six hundred houses of 
a private nature, most of them built of stone and tile, and 
an equal number outside in the suburbs, or "arrabales," 
all occupied by Spaniards ("todos son vivienda y pob- 
lacion de los Espanoles")-^ 

This gives some twelve hundred Spanish families or 
establishments, exclusive of the religious, who in Manila 
numbered at least one hundred and fifty,^ the garrison, 
at certain times, about four hundred trained Spanish 
soldiers who had seen service in Holland and the Low 
Countries, and the official classes. 

The Malecon and the Luneta. — It is interesting at 
this early date to find mention of the famous recreation 
drive, the Paseo de Bagumbayan, now commonly known 
as the Malecon and Luneta. "Manila," says our historian, 
"has two places of recreation on land; the one, which is 
clean and wide, extends from the point called Our Lady 
of Guidance for about a league along the sea, and through 
the street and village of natives, called Bagumbayan, to 

' Relacinn de las Isla-t FiUpinas, chap. V., p. 28, and chap. XTII. 
p. 47. 

2 Ihid., p. 323. 
' Ibid., p. 321, 


a very devout hermitage (Ermita), called the Hermitage 
of Our Lady of Guidance, and from there a good distance 
to a monastery and mission (doctrina) of the Augustin- 
ians, called Mahalat (Malate)." * The other drive lay out 
through the present suburb of Concepcion, then called 
Laguio, to Paco, where was a monastery of the Francis- 

The Chinese in Manila. — Early Chinese Commerce. — 
We have seen that even as long ago as three hundred 
years Manila was a metropolis of the Eastern world. Ves- 
sels from many lands dropped anchor at the mouth of the 
Pasig, and their merchants set up their booths within her 
markets. Slaves from far-distant India and Africa were 
sold under her walls. Surely it was a cosmopolitan popu- 
lation that the shifting monsoons carried to and from her 

But of all these Eastern races only one has been 
a constant and important factor in the life of the Islands. 
This is the Chinese. It does not appear that they settled 
in the country or materially affected the life of the Fili- 
pinos until the establishment of Manila by the Spaniards. 
The Spaniards were early desirous of cultivating friendly 
relations with the Empire of China. Salcedo, on his first 
punitive expedition to Mindoro, had found a Chinese junk, 
which had gone ashore on the western coast. He was 
careful to rescue these voyagers and return them to their 
own land, with a friendly message inviting trading rela- 
tions. Commerce and immigration followed immediately 
the founding of the city. 

The Chinese are without question the most remarkable 
colonizers in the world. They seem able to thrive in 
any climate. They readily marry with every race. The 

' Morga: Sucesos, p. 324, 


children that follow such unions are not only numerous 
but healthy and intelligent. The coasts of China teem 
with overcrowding populations. Emigration to almost 
any land means improvement of the Chinese of poor birth. 
These qualities and conditions, with their keen sense for 
trade and their indifference to physical hardship and 
danger, make the Chinese almost a dominant factor 
wherever political barriers have not been raised against 
their entrance. 

The Chinese had early gained an important place in the 
commercial and industrial life of Manila. A letter to the 
king from Bishop Salazar shows that he befriended them 
and was warm in their praise.' This was in 1590, and 
there were then in Manila and Tondo about seven thou- 
sand resident Chinese, and they were indispensable to the 
prosperity of the city. 

Importance of Chinese Labor and Trade. — In the 
early decades of Spanish rule, the Philippines were poor in 
resources and the population was sparse, quite insufficient 
for the purposes of the Spanish colonizers. Thus the 
early development of the colony was based upon Chinese 
labor and Chinese trade. As the early writers are fond of 
emphasizing, from China came not only the finished silks 
and costly wares, which in large part were destined for 
the trade to New Spain and Europe, but also cattle, horses 
and mares, foodstuffs, metals, fruits, and even ink and 
paper. "And what is more," says Chirino, "from China 
come those who supply every sort of service, _all dexterous, 
prompt, and cheap, from physicians and barbers to burden- 
bearers and porters. They are the tailors and shoemakers, 
metal-workers, silversmiths, sculptors, locksmiths, paint- 

' Carta Rel/icion de las Cosas de la China // de los Chinos del Parian 
de Manila, 1590; w Reta,aa, Archivo, vol. III. 


ers, masons, weavers, and finally every kind of servitors 
in the commonwealth." ' 

Distrust of the Chinese. — In those days, not only 
were the Chinese artisans and traders, but they were also 
farmers and fishermen, — occupations in which they are 
now not often seen. But in spite of their economic neces- 
sity, the Chinese were always looked upon with disfavor 
and their presence with dread. Plots of murder and in- 
surrection were supposedly rife among them. Writers ob- 
ject that their numbers were so great that there was no 
security in the land; their life was bad and vicious; 
through intercourse with them the natives advanced but 
little in Christianity and customs ; they were such terrible 
eaters that they made foods scarce and prices high. 

If permitted, they went everywhere through the Islands 
and committed a thousand abuses and offenses. They ex- 
plored every spot, river, estero, and harbor, and knew 
the country better even than the Spaniard himself, so 
that if any enemy should come they would be able to 
cause infinite mischief.^ When we find so just and high- 
minded a man as the president of the Audiencia, Morga, 
giving voice to such charges, we may be sure that the feel- 
ing was deep and terrible, and practically imiversal among 
all Spanish inhabitants. 

The First Massacre of the Chinese- — Each race feared 
and suspected the other, and from this mutual cowardice 
came in 1603 a cruel outbreak and massacre. Three Chi- 
nese mandarins arrived in that year, stating that they 
had been sent by the emperor to investigate a report that 
there was a mountain in Cavite of solid precious metal. 

' Tlelacion de las Islas Filipinas, p. 18. See also Salazar, Carta 

" Sitcesos de las Islas Filipinas, p. 364. 


This myth was no more absurd than many pursued by the 
Spaniards themselves in their early conquests, and it 
doubtless arose from the fact that Chinese wares were 
largely purchased by Mexican bullion; but the Spaniards 
were at once filled with suspicion of an invasion, and 
their distrust turned against the Chinese in the Islands. 

How far these latter were actually plotting sedition 
and how far they were driven into attack by their 
fears at the conduct of the Spaniards can hardly be de- 
cided. But the fact is, that on the evening of Saint 
Francis day the Chinese of the Parian rose. The dragon 
banners were raised, war-gongs were beaten, and that 
night the pueblos of Quiapo and Tondo were burned and 
many Filipinos murdered. 

In the morning a force of 130 Spaniards, under Don 
Luis Dasmariiias and Don Tomas Bravo, were sent across 
the river, and in the fight nearly every Spaniard was slain. 
The Chinese then assaulted the city, but, according to 
the tradition of the priests, they were driven back in terror 
by the apparition on the walls of Saint Francis. They 
threw up forts on the site of the Parian and in Dilao, but 
the power of their wild fury was gone and the Spaniards 
were able to dislodge and drive them into the country 
about San Pablo de Monte. From here they were dis- 
persed with great slaughter. Twenty-three thousand 
Chinese are reported by Zuniga to have perished in 
this sedition. If his r'eport is true, the nimiber of Chinese 
in the Islands must have increased very rapidly between 
1590 and 1603. 

Restriction of Chinese Tinmigration and Travel. — 
Commerce and immigration began again almost immediately. 
The number of Chinese, however, allowed to remain was 
reduced. The Chinese ships that came annually to trade 


were obliged to take back with them the crews and pas- 
sengers which they brought. Only a limited number of 
merchants and artisans were permitted to live in the Is- 
lands. They were confined to three districts in the city of 
Manila, and to the great market, the Alcayceria or Parian. 

The word " Parian" seems to have been also used for the 
Chinese quarter in and adjoining the walled city, but here 
is meant the district in Binondo about the present Calle 
San Fernando. A block of stores with small habitations 
above them had been built as early as the time of Gon- 
salez. It was in the form of a square, and here were the 
largest numbers of shops and stores. 

They could not travel about the Islands, nor go two 
leagues from the city without a written license, nor remain 
over night within the city after the gates were closed, on 
penalty of their lives. They had their own alcalde and 
judge, a tribunal and jail ; and on the north side of the 
river Dominican friars, who had learned the Chinese lan- 
guage, had erected a mission and hospital. There was a 
separate barrio for the baptized Chinese and their families, 
to the number of about five hundred. 

The Chinese in the Philippines from the earliest time to 
the present have been known by the name of "Sang- 
leyes." The derivation of this curious word is uncertain; 
but Navarrete, who must have understood Chinese well, 
says that the word arose from a misapprehension of the 
words spoken by the Chinese who first presented them- 
selves at Manila. "Being asked what they came for, 
they answered, 'Xang Lei,' that is, 'We come to trade.' 
The Spaniards, who understood not their language, con- 
ceiving it to be the name of a country, and putting the 
two words together, made one of them, by which they 
still distinguish the Chinese, calling them Sangleyes." 


The Japanese Colony. — There was also in these early 
years quite a colony of Japanese. Their community lay 
between the Parian and the barrio of Laguio. There were 
about five hundred, and among them the Franciscans 
claimed a goodly number of converts. 

The Filipino District of Tondo. — We have described at 
some length the city south of the river and the surround- 
ing suburbs, most of them known by the names they hold 
to-day. North of the Pasig was the great district of 
Tondo, the center of that strong, independent Filipino 
feeling which at an early date was colored with Moham- 
medanism and to this day is strong in local feeling. This 
region has thriven and built up until it has long been by 
far the most important and populous part of the metrop- 
olis, but not until very recent times was it regarded as a 
part of the city of Manila, which name was reserved for 
the walled citadel alone. 

A bridge across the Pasig, on the site of the present 
Puente de Espana, connected the two districts at a date 
later than Morga's time. It was one of the first things 
noticed by Navarrete, who, without describing it well, 
says it was very fine. It was built during the governor- 
ship of Niiio de Tabora, who died in 1632.' Montero 
states that it was of stone, and that this same bridge 
stood for more than two centuries, resisting the incessant 
traffic and the strength of floods.^ 

The Decline of Manila during the Next Century. — Such 
was Manila thirty-five and forty years after its founda- 
tion. It was at the zenith of its importance, the capital 
of the eastern colonies, the mart of Asia, more splendid 
than Goa, more powerful than Malacca or Macao, more 

' Zufiiga: Historia de las Filipinas, p. 252. 
^ Historia General de Filipinas, vol. I., p. 187. 


populous and far more securely held than Ternate and 
Tidor. "Truly," exclaimed Chirino, "it is another Tyre, 
so magnified by Ezekiel." It owed its great place to the 
genius and daring of the men who founded it, to the free- 
dom of action which it had up to this point^ enjoyed, 
and to its superlative situation. 

In the years that followed we have to recount for 
the most part only the process of decline. Spain her- 
self was fast on the wane. A few years later and the 
English had almost driven her navies from the seas, the 
Portuguese had regained their independence and lost em- 
pire, the Dutch were in the East, harrying Portuguese and 
Spaniard alike and fast monopolizing the rich trade. The 
commerce and friendly relations with the Chinese, on 
which so much depended, were broken by massacre and 
reprisal; and, most terrible and piteous of all, the awful 
wrath and lust of the Malay pirate, for decade after de- 
cade, was to be visited upon the archipelago. 

The colonial policy of the mother-land, selfish, short- 
sighted, and criminal, was soon to make its paralyzing 
influence felt upon trade and administration alike. These 
things were growing and taking place in the next period 
which we have to consider, — the years from 1600. to 
1663. They left the Philippines despoiled and insignifi- 
cant for a whole succeeding century, a decadent colony 
and an exploited treasure. 


Loss of the Naval Power of Spain and Portugal. — The 

seizure of Portugal by Philip II. in 1580 was disastrous 
in its consequences to both Portugal and Spain. For 
Portugal it was humiliation and loss of colonial power, 
Spain was unequal to the task of defending the Portu- 
guese possessions, and her jealousy of their prosperity 
seems to have caused her deliberately to neglect their in- 
terests and permit their decline. In one day Portugal 
lost possession of that splendid and daring navy which had 
first found a way to the Indies. Several hundred Portu- 
guese ships, thousands of guns, and large sums of money 
were appropriated by Spain upon the annexation of Por- 
tugal.* Most of these ill-fated ships went down in the 
English Channel with the Great Armada. 

When the terrible news of the destruction of this power- 
ful armament, on which rested Spanish hopes for the con- 
quest and humiliation of England, was brought to the 
Escorial, the magnificent palace where the years of the 
king were passed, Philip II., that strange man, whose 
countenance never changed at tidings of either defeat or 
victory, is reported to have simply said, "I thank God 
that I have the power to replace the loss." He was fatu- 
ously mistaken. The loss could never be made good. 
The navies of Spain and Portugal were never fully rebuilt. 
In that year (1588), preeminence on the sea passed to the 
English and the Dutch. 

' Morris : The History of Colonization, vol. I., p. 215 sq. 



The Netherlands Become an Independent Country. — 

Who were these Dutch, or Hollanders? How came they 
to wrest from Spain and Portugal a colonial empire, which 
they hold to-day without loss of prosperity or evidence of 
decline? In the north of Europe, facing the North Sea, 
is a low, rich land, intersected by rivers and washed far 
into its interior by the tides, known as Holland, the Low 
Countries, or the Netherlands. Its people have ever been 
famed for their industry and hardihood. In manufacture 
and trade in the latter Middle Age, they stood far in the 
lead in northern Europe. Their towns and cities were the 
thriftiest, most prosperous, and most cleanly. 

We have already explained the curious facts of succes- 
sion by which these countries became a possession of the 
Spanish king. Emperor Charles the Fifth. The Low Coun- 
tries were always greatly prized by Charles, and in spite 
of the severities of his rule he held their affection and 
loyalty until his death. It was in the city of Antwerp 
that he formally abdicated in favor of his son, Philip II., 
and, as described by contemporary historians, this solemn 
and imposing ceremony was witnessed with every mark 
of loyalty by the assembly. 

The Behellion. — But the oppressions and persecu- 
tions of Philip's reign drove the people to rebellion. The 
Netherlands had embraced the Protestant religion, and 
when, in addition to plunder, intimidation, the quartering 
of Spanish soldiery, and the violation of sovereign prom- 
ises, Philip imposed that terrible and merciless institution, 
the Spanish Inquisition, the Low Countries faced the ty- 
rant in a passion of rebellion. 

War, begun in 1556, dragged on for years. There was 
pitiless cruelty, and the sacking of cities was accompanied 
by fearful butchery. In 1575 the seven Dutch counties 

THE DUTCH AND MORO WARS. 1600-1603. 189 

declared their independence, and formed the republic of 
the Netherlands. Although the efforts of Spain to re- 
conquer the territory continued until the end of the cen- 
tury, practical independence was gained some years before. 

Trade between Portugal and the Netherlands Forbidden. 
— A large portion of the commerce of the Low Countries 
had been with Lisbon. The Portuguese did not distrib- 
ute to Europe the products which their navies brought 
from the Indies. Foreign merchants purchased in Lisbon 
and carried these wares to other lands, and to a very large 
degree this service had been performed by the Dutch. 
But on the annexation of Portugal, Philip forbade all 
commerce and trade between the two countries. By this 
act the Dutch, deprived of their Lisbon trade, had to face 
the alternative of commercial ruin or the gaining of those 
Eastern products for themselves. They chose the latter 
course with all its risks. It was soon made possible by 
the destruction of the Armada. 

The Dutch Expeditions to the Indies. — In 1595 their 
first expedition, led by one Cornelius Houtman, who had 
sailed in Portuguese galleons, rounded the Cape of Good 
Hope and entered the Indian domain. The objective 
point was Java, where an alliance was formed with the 
native princes and a cargo of pepper secm-ed. Two things 
were shown by the safe return of this fleet, — the great 
wealth and profit of the Indian trade, and the inability 
of Spain and Portugal to maintain their monopoly. 

In 1598 the merchants of Amsterdam defeated a com- 
bined Spanish and Portuguese fleet in the East, and trad- 
ing settlements were secured in Java and Johore. In 
1605 they carried their factories to Amboina and Tidor. 

Effect of the Success of the Dutch. — The exclusive 
monopoly over the waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, 


which Portugal and Spain had maintained for a century, 
was broken. With the concurrence of the Roman See, 
they had tried to divide the New World and the Orient 
between them. That effort was now passed. They had 
claimed the right to exclude from the vast oceans they 
had discovered the vessels of every other nation but their 

This doctrine in the History of International Law 
is known as that of mare clausum, or " closed sea." The 
death-blow to this domination was given by the entrance 
of the Dutch into the Indies, and it is not a mere coinci- 
dence that we find the doctrine of closed sea itseK scien- 
tifically assailed, a few years later, by the great Dutch 
jurist, Grotius, the founder of the system of international 
law in his work, De Libera Mare. 

The Trading Methods of the Dutch. — The Dutch made 
no attempts in the Indies to foimd great colonies for po- 
litical domination and religious conversion. Commerce 
was their sole object. Their policy was to form alliances 
with native rulers, promising to assist them against the 
rule of the Portuguese or Spaniard in return for exclu- 
sive privileges of trade. In this they were more than suc- 

In 1602 they obtained permission to establish a factory 
at Bantam, on the island of Java. This was even then a 
considerable trading-point. "Chinese, Arabs, Persians, 
Moors, Turks, Malabars, Peguans, and merchants from 
all nations were established there," the principal object of 
trade being pepper.^ 

The character of the treaty made by the Dutch with 
the king of Bantam is stated by Raffles. "The Dutch 
stipulated to assist, him against foreign invaders, particu- 

' Raffles: History of Java, vol. II., p. 116. 

THE DUTCH AND MORO WARS. 1600-1663. 191 

larly Spaniards and Portuguese; and the king, on his side, 
agreed, to make over to the Dutch a good and strong 
fort, a free trade, and security for their persons and 
property without pajnnent of any duties or taxes, and 
to allow no other European nation to trade or reside in 
his territories." 

Spanish Expedition against the Dutch in the Moluccas. 
— The Spaniards, however, did not relinquish the field to 
these new foes without a struggle, and the conflict fills 
the history of the eighteenth century. When the Dutch 
expelled the Portuguese from Amboina and Tidor in Feb- 
ruary, 1605, many of the Portuguese came to the Phil- 
ippines and enlisted in the Spanish forces. The governor, 
Don Pedro Bravo de,Acuna, filled with wrath at the loss 
of these important possessions, with great activity organ- 
ized an expedition for their conquest. 

In the previous year there had arrived from Spain eight 
hundred troops, two hundred of them being native 
Mexicans. Thus Acuiia was able to organize a powerful 
fleet that mounted seventy-five pieces of artillery and 
carried over fourteen hundred Spaniards and sixteen 
hundred Indians.' The fleet sailed in January, 1606. 
Tidor was taken without resistance and the Dutch fac- 
tory seized, with a great store of money, goods, and 
weapons. The Spaniards then assailed Ternate; the fort 
and plaza were bombarded, and then the town was car- 
ried by storm. 

Thus, at last was accomplished the adventure which 
for nearly a century had inspired the ambitions of the 
Spaniards, which had drawn the fleet of Magellan, which 
had wrecked the expeditions of Loyasa and Villalobos, for 

' On the history of this notable expedition see Argensola, Conguista 
de las Islas Molucas. Madrid, 1609. 


which the Spaniards in the Philippines had prepared ex- 
pedition after expedition, and for which Governor Das- 
mariiias had sacrificed his Hfe. At last the Moluccas 
had been taken by the forces of Spain. 

Capture of a Dutch Fleet at Mariveles. — So far from 
disposing of their enemies, however, this action simply 
brought the Dutch into the Philippines. In 1609, Juan 
de Silva became governor of the Islands and in the same 
year arrived the Dutch admiral, Wittert, with a squadron. 
After an unsuccessful attack on Iloilo, the Dutch fleet 
anchored off Mariveles, to capture vessels arriving for the 
Manila trade. 

At this place, on the 25th of April, 1610, the Spanish 
fleet, which had been hastily fitted at Cavite, attacked 
the Dutch, killing the admiral and taking all the ships but 
one, two himdred and fifty prisoners, and a large amount 
of silver and merchandise. These prispners seem to have 
been treated with more mercy than the captives of Van 
Noort's fleet, who were hung at Cavite. The wounded are 
said to have been cared for, and the friars from all the 
religious orders vied with one another to convert these 
"Protestant pirates" from their heresy. 

An Expedition against the Dutch in Java. — Spain made 
a truce of her European wars with Holland in 1609, but 
this cessation of hostilities was never recognized in the 
East. The Dutch and Spanish colonists continued to war 
upon and pillp-ge each other until late in the century. En- 
couraged by his victory over Wittert, Silva negotiated 
with the Portuguese allies in Goa, India, to drive the 
Dutch from Java. A powerful squadron sailed from 
Cavite in 1616 for this purpose. It was the largest fleet 
which up to that date had ever been assembled in the 
Philippines. The expedition, however, failed to unite with 

THE DUTCH AND MORO WARS. 1600-1663. 193 

their Portuguese allies, and in April, Silva died at Malacca 
of malignant fever. 

The Dutch Fleets. — Battles near Corregidor. — The 
fleet retm-ned to Cavite to find that the city, while stripped 
of soldiers and artillery, had been in a fever of anxiety 
and apprehension over the proximity of Dutch vessels. 
They were those of Admiral Spilbergen, who had arrived 
by way of the Straits of Magellan and the Pacific. He 
has left us a chart of the San Bernadino Straits, which is 
reproduced here. Spilbergen bombarded Ilolio and then 
sailed for the Moluccas. . 

A year later he returned, met a Spanish fleet of seven 
galleons and two galleras near Manila and suffered a 
severe defeat.' The battle began with cannonading on 
Friday, April 13, and continued throughout the day. 
On the following day the vessels came to close quarters, 
the Spaniards boarded the Dutch vessels, and the battle 
was fought out with the sword. 

The Dutch were overwhelmed. Probably their num- 
bers were few. The Relacion states they had fourteen 
galleons, but other accounts put the number at ten, 
three vessels of which were destroyed or taken by the 
Spaniards. One of them, the beautiful ship, "The Sun 
of Holland," was burned. This combat is known as the 
battle of Playa Honda. Another engagement took place in 
the same waters of Corregidor, late in 1624, when a Dutch 
fleet was driven away without serious loss to either side. 

The Dutch Capture Chinese Junks, and Galleons. — 
But through the intervening years, fleets of the Hollanders 

1 An account of this victory, written the following year, Relacion 
Verdadera de la Grand Vittoria, que el Armada Espanola de la China 
tuuo contra los Orlandeses Pirates, has been reprinted by Retana, 
Archivo ^Biblidfilo Filipino, vol. II. 


were continually arriving, both by the way of the Cape of 
Good Hope and the Straits of Magellan. Those that came 
across the Pacific almost invariably cruised up the Strait 
of San Bernadino, securing the fresh provisions so desir- 
able to them after their long voyage. 

The prizes which they made of Chinese vessels, passing 
Corregidor for Manila, give us an idea of how consider- 
ably the Spaniards in the Philippines relied upon China 
for their food. Junks, or " champans," were continually 
passing Corregidor, laden with chickens, hogs, rice, sugar, 
and other comestibles.' 

The Mexican galleons were frequently destroyed or cap- 
tured by these lurking fleets of the Dutch, and for a time 
the route through the Straits of San Bernadino had to be 
abandoned, the galleons reaching Manila by way of Cape 
Engano, or sometimes landing in Cagayan, and more than 
once going ashore on the Pacific side of the island, at 
Binangonan de Lampon. 

The Dutch in Formosa. — The Dutch also made repeated 
efforts to wrest from Portvigal her settlement and trade in 
China. As early as 1557 the Portuguese had estabhshed 
a settlement on the island of Macao, one of these niunerous 
islets that fill the estuary of the river of Canton. This is 
the oldest European settlement in China and has been 
held continuously by the Portuguese until the present 
day, when it remains almost the last vestige of the once 
mighty Portuguese empire of the East. It was much 
coveted by the Dutch because of its importance in the 
trade with Canton and Fukien. 

' "Just before the naval engagement of Playa Honda, the Dutch 
intercepted junks. on the way to Manila, bringing, amongst their car- 
goes of food, as many as twelve thousand capons." — Foreman: The 
Philippine Islands, p. 104. 

THE DUTCH AND MORO WARS. 1600-1663. 195 

In 1622 a fleet from Java brought siege to Macao, and, 
being repulsed, sailed to the Pescadores Islands, where 
they built a fort and established a post, which threatened 
both the Portuguese trade with Japan and the Manila 
trade with Amoy. Two years later, on the solicitation 
of the Chinese government, the Dutch removed their 
settlement to Formosa, where they broke up the Spanish 
mission stations and held the island for the succeeding 
thirty-five years. Thus, throughout the century, these 
European powers harassed and raided one another, but 
no one of them was sufficiently strong to expel the others 
from the East. 

The Portuguese Colonies. — In 1640 the kingdom of 
Portugal freed itself from the domination of Spain. With 
the same blow Spain lost the great colonial possessions 
that came to her with the attachment of the Portuguese. 
"All the places," says Zuniga, "which the Portuguese had 
in the Indies, separated themselves from the crown of 
Castile and recognized as king, Don Juan of Portugal." 
"This same year," he adds, "the Dutch took Malacca." ^ 

The Moros. — Increase of Moro Piracy. — During all 
these years the raids of the Moros of Maguindanao and 
Jolo had never ceased. Their piracies were almost con- 
tinuous. There was no security; churches were looted, 
priests killed, people borne away for ransom or for slavery. 
Obviously, this piracy could only be met by destroying it 
at its source. Defensive fortifications and protective fleets 
were of no consequence, when compared with the necessity 
of subduing the Moro in his own lairs. In 1628 and 1630 
punitive expeditions were sent against Jolo, Basilan, and 
Mindanao, which drove the Moros from their forts, burned 
their towns, and cut down their groves of cocoanut trees. 

' Historia de Filipinas, p. 282, 


But such expeditions served only to inflame the more the 
wrathful vengeance of the Moro, and in 1635 the govern- 
ment resolved upon a change of policy and the establish- 
ment of a presidio at Zamboanga. 

Founding of a Spanish Post at Zamboanga. — This 
brings us to a new phase in the Moro wars. The gover- 
nor, Juan Cerezo de Salamanca, was determined upon the 
conquest and the occupation of Mindanao and Job. In 
taking this step, Salamanca, like Corcuera, who succeeded 
him, acted under the influence of the Jesuits. Their mis- 
sions in Bohol and northern Mindanao made them ambi- 
tious to reserve for the ministrations of their society all 
lands that were conquered and occupied, south of the 

The Jesuits were the missionaries on Ternate and 
Siao and wherever in the Moluccas and Celebes the Span- 
ish and Portuguese had established their power. The 
Jesuits had accompanied the expedition of Rodriguez de 
Figueroa in 1595, and from that date they never ceased 
petitioning the government for a, military occupation of 
these islands and for their own return, as the missionaries 
of these regions. The Jesuits were brilliant and able 
administrators. For men of their ambition, Mindanao, 
with its rich soil, attractive productions, and compara- 
tively numerous populations, was a most enticing field for 
the establishment of such a theocratic commonwealth as 
the Jesuits had created and administered in America.' 

On the other hand, the occupation of Zamboanga was 
strenuously opposed by the other religious orders; but the 
Jesuits, ever remarkable for their ascendancy in affairs of 

' How attractive the island appeared and how well they knew its 
peoples is re\'ealed by the accurate descriptions in Jhe first book of 
Combos' Ilistoria de Mindanao y Jolo. 

THE DUTCH AND MORO WARS. 1600-1663. 197 

state, were able to effect the establishment of Zamboanga, 
though they could not prevent its abandonment a quarter 
of a century later. 

Erection of the Forts. — The presidio was founded in 
1635, by a force imder Don Juan de Chaves. His army 
consisted of three hundred Spaniards and one thousand 
Bisaya. The end of the peninsula was swept of Moro 
inhabitants and their towns destroyed by fire. In June 
the foundations of the stone fort were laid under the 
direction of the Jesuit, Father Vera, who is described as 
being experienced in military engineering and architecture. 

To supply the new site with water, a ditch was built 
from the river Tumaga, a distance of six or seven miles, 
which brought a copious stream to the very walls of the 
fort. The advantage or failure of this expensive fortress 
is very hard to determine. Its planting was a partisan 
measure, and it was always subject to partisan praise and 
partisan blame. Sometimes it seemed to have checked 
the Moros and sometimes seemed only to be stirring them 
to fresh anger and aggression. 

The same year that saw the establishment of Zam- 
boanga, Hortado de Corcuera became governor of the 
Philippines. He was much under the influence of the 
Jesuits and confirmed their policy of conquest. 

Defeat of the Moro Pirate Tagal. — A few months 
later a notable fleet of pirates, recruited from Mindanao, 
Jolo, and Borneo, and headed by a chieftain named Tagal, 
a brother of the notorious Correlat, sultan of Maguin- 
danao, went defiantly past the new presidio and north- 
ward through the Miiiddrol Siea. . For more than seven 
months they cruised the Bisayas. The islands of the 
Camarines especially "felt their ravages. In Cuyo they^ 
captured the corregldor and three friars, Finally, with 



650 captives and rich booty, including the ornaments 
and services of churches, Tagal turned southward on his 

The presidio of Zamboanga had prepared to intercept him 

_^,, and a fierce battle 

took place off the 
Punta de Flechas, 
thirty leagues to 
the northeast of 
Zamboanga. Ac- 
cording to the 
Spanish writers, 
this point was one 
held sacred b y 
M o r supersti- 
tions. A deity 
inhabited these 
waters, whom the 
Moros were ac- 
customed to pro- 
pitiate on the de- 
parture and ar- 
rival of their 
expeditions, b y 
throwing into the 
sea lances and 
arrows. The vic- 
I tory was a not- 

able one for the Spanish arms. Tagal and more than 
300 Moros were killed, and 120 Christian captives were 

forme ra' s E.\-pediti on f I gainst the Moros at LamUan. 
— Corcuera had meanwhile been preparing an expedition 

Moro Helmet and Coat of Mail. 

THE DUTCH AXD MORO WARS. 1600-166:',. 199 

which had taken on the character of a holy war. Jesuit 
and soldier mingled in its company and united in its di- 
rection. The Jesuit saint, Francis Xavier, was proclaimed 
patron of the expedition, and mass was celebrated daily 
on the ships. Corcuera himself accompanied the expedi- 
tion, and at Zamboanga, where they arrived February 22, 
1637, he united a force of 760 Spaniards and many Bi- 
sayans and Pampangas. 

From Zamboanga the force started for Lamitan, the 
stronghold of Correlat, and the center of the power of the 

Maguindanao. It seems to have been situated on the 
coast, south of the region of Lake Lanao. The fleet 
encountered rough weather and contrary winds off Punta 
de Flechas, which they attributed to the influence of the 
Moro demon. 

To rid the locality of this unholy influence. Padre 
Marcello, the Jesuit superior, occupied himself for two 
days. Padre Combos has left us an account of the cere- 
mony.* The demon was dispossessed by exorcism. Mass 
was celebrated. Various articles, representing Moro in- 

^ Historia de Mindanao y Jolo, lib. IV., chap. 7. 



fidelity, including arrows, were destroyed and burnt. Holy 
relics were thrown into the waters, and the place was 
finally sanctified by baptism in the name of Saint Sebas- 
On the 14th of March the expedition reached Lamitan, 

fortified and defended by two thousand Moro warriors. 
The Spanish force, however, was overwhelming, and the 

city was taken by storm. Here were captured eight 
bronze cannon, twenty-seven "versos" (a kind of small 
howitzer), and over a hundred muskets and arquebuses 
and a great store of Moro weapons. Over one hundred 
vessels were destroyed, including a fleet of Malay mer- 
chant praos from Java. Sixteen villages were burned, 



arid seventy-two Moros were hung. Correlat, though pur- 
sued and wounded, was not captured.^ 

The Conquest of Jolo. — Corcuera returned to Zam- 
boanga and organized an expedition for the conquest of 
Jolo. Although defended by four thousand Moro war- 
riors and by allies from Basilan and the Celebes, Corcuera 
took Jolo after some months of siege. The sultan saved 

Old Uoio Pirate Boat. 

himself by flight, but the sultana was taken prisoner. 
Corcuera reconstructed the fort, established a garrison of 
two hundred Spaniards and an equal number of Pampan- 
gas, left some Jesuit fathers, and, having nominated 

' This important victory was commemorated in a number of writ- 
ings, some of whicli have been reprinted by Retana. See Sucesos 
Felices, que par Mar y Tierra ha dado N. S. a las armas Espanolas, 1637. 
Another is published in the Appendix to B'arrantes', Historia de Guer-^ 
ras Piraticas. The subject is also fully treated by Combos. 


Major Almonte chief of all the forces in the south, returned 
in May, 1638, to Manila, with all the triumph of a con- 

Almonte continued the work of subjugation. In 1639 
he conquered the Moro dato of Buhayen, in the valley of 
the Rio Grande, where a small presidio was foimded. And 
in the same year the Jesuits prevailed upon him to invade 
the territory of the Malanao, now known as the Laguna 
de Lanao. This expedition was made from the north 
through Iligan, and for a time brought even this warlike 
and difficult territory tmder the authority of the governor 
and the spiritual administration of the Jesuits. 

Loss of the Spanish Settlement on Formosa. — The full 
military success of Corcuera's governorship was marred by 
the loss of Macao and the captm-e of the Spanish settle- 
ment on the island of Formosa by the Dutch. In the 
attempt to hold Macao, Corcuera sent over the encomen- 
dero of Pasig, Don Juan Claudio. The populace of Macao, 
however, rose in tumult, assassinated the governor, Sebas- 
tian Lobo, and pronounced in favor of Portugal. Later, 
by decree of the Portuguese governor of Goa, all the 
Spanish residents and missionaries were expelled. The 
Dutch seizure of Formosa, a year later, has already been 

The Archipelago and the Religious Orders. — During 
these decades, conflict was almost incessant between the 
archbishop of Manila and the regular orders. In the 
Philippines the regulars were the parish curates, and the 
archbishop desired that all matters of their curacy, touch- 
ing the administration of the sacraments and other parish 
duties, should be subject to the direction of the bishops. 
This question of the "diocesan visit" was fought over 
for nearly two hundred years. 

THE DUTCH AND MORO M'ARS. 1600-1663. 203 

The Governor and the Archbishop. — Even more serious 
to the colony were the conflicts that raged between the 
governor-general and the archbishop. All the points of 
dissension between Church and State, which vexed the 
Middle Ages, broke out afresh in the Philippines. The 
appointment of religious officers; the distribution of reve- 
nue; the treatment of the natives; the claim of the church 
to offer asylum to those fleeing the arm of the law; its 
claims of jurisdiction, in its ecclesiastical courts, over a 
large class of civil offenses — these disputes and many 
others, occasioned almost incessant discord between the 
heads of civil and ecclesiastical authority. 

The " Residencia." — We have seen that the power of 
the governor was in fact very large. Theoretically, the 
Audiencia was a limit upon his authority; but in fact the 
governor was usually the president of this body, and the 
oidores were frequently his abettors and rarely his oppo- 
nents. At the end of each governor's rule there took 
place a characteristic Spanish institution, called the " Resi- 
dencia." This was a court held by the newly elected 
governor, for an examination into the conduct of his 
predecessor. Complaints of every description were re- 
ceived, and often, in the history of the Philippines, one 
who had ruled the archipelago almost as an independent 
monarch found himself, at the end of his office, ruined, 
and in chains. 

It was upon the occasion of the Residencia that the 
ecclesiastical powers, after a governorship stormy with 
disputes, exercised their power for revenge. Unquestion- 
ably many a governor, despite his actual power, facing.^ 
as he did, the Residencia at the termination of his rule, 
made peace with his enemies and yielded to their de- 


Corcuera had continuous troubles with the archbishop 
and with the reUgious orders other than the Jesuits. In 
1644, when his successor, Fajardo, reheved him, the Fran- 
ciscans, Augustinians, and Recollects procured his imprison- 
ment and the confiscation of his property. For five years, 
the conqueror of the Moros lay a prisoner in the fortresses 
of Santiago and Cavite, when he was pardoned by the 
Council of the Indies, and appointed governor of the Can- 
aries by the king. 

Weakening of the Governor's Power. — This power 
of private and religious classes to intimidate and overawe 
the responsible head of the Philippine government was an 
abuse which continued to the very close of the Spanish 
rule. This, together with the relatively short terrn of the 
governor's office, his natural desire to avoid trouble, his 
all too frequent purpose of amassing a fortune rather than 
maintaining the dignity of his position and advancing the 
interests of the Islands, combined decade after decade to 
make the spiritual authority more powerful. In the end the 
religious orders, with their great body of members, their 
hold upon the Filipinos, their high influence at the court, 
and finally their great landed wealth, governed the Islands. 

The Educational Work of the Religious Orders- — In 
any criticism of the evils connected with their administra- 
tion of the Philippines, one must not fail to recognize the 
many achievements of the missionary friars that were 
worthy. To the Dominicans and the Jesuits is due the 
establishment of institutions of learning. The Jesuits in 
1601 had planted their College of San Jos6. The Domini- 
cans, here as in Europe, the champions of orthodox learn- 
ing, had their own institution, the College of Santo Tomas, 
inaugurated in 1619, and were the rivals of the Jesuits 
for the privilege of giving higher instruction. 

THE DUTCH AND MORO WARS. 1600-1663. 205 

In 1645 the pope granted to the Dominicans the right to 
bestow higher degrees, and their college became the " Royal 
and Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas." 
This splendid name breathes that very spirit of the Middle 
Ages which the Dominican order strove to perpetuate in 
the Philippines down to modern days.^ Dominicans also 
founded the College of San Juan de Letran, as a prepara- 
tory school to the University. 

"We should not pass over the educational work of the 
religious orders without mention of the early printing- 
plants and their publications. The missionary friars were 
famous printers, and in the Philippines, as well as in Amer- 
ica, some noble volumes were produced by their handi- 
craft. ' 

Fozmding of Hospitals by the Franciscans. — Nor 
had the Franciscans in the Philippines neglected the fun- 
damental purpose of their foundation, — that of ministra- 
tion to the sick and unprotected. A narrative of their 
order, written in 1649, gives a long list of their beneficent 
foundations.^ Besides the hospital of Manila, they had an 
infirmary at Cavite for the native mariners and ship- 
builders, a hospital at Los Banos, another in the city of 
Nueva Caceras. Lay brethren were attached to many of 
the convents as nurses. 

In 1633 a curious occurrence led to the founding of the 
leper hospital of San Lazaro. The emperor of Japan, in 
a probably ironical mood, sent to Manila a shipload of 
Japanese affiicted with this unfortunate disease. These 
people were mercifully received by the Franciscans, and 

' The king did not confer the title of "Royal" until 1735, although 
the University was taken under his protection in 1680. 

^ Entrada de la Seraphica Religion, de Nuestro P. S. Francisco en 
las Islas Filipinas, Retana, vol. I. 


cared for in a home, which became the San Lazaro hos- 
pital for lepers. 

Life and Progress of the Filipinos. — Few sources exist 
that can show us the life and progress of the Filipino 
people during these decades. Christianity, as introduced 
by the missionary friars, was wonderfully successful, and 
yet there ' were relapses into heathenism. Old religious 
leaders and priestesses roused up from time to time, and 
incited the natives to rebellion against their new spiritual 
masters. The payment of tribute and the labor required 
for the building of churches often drove the people into 
the mountains. 

Religious Revolt at Bohol and Leyte. — In 1621 a 
somewhat serious revolt took place on Bohol. The Jes- 
uits who administered the island were absent in Cebu, 
attending the fiestas on the canonization of Saint Francis 
Xavier. The whisper was raised that the old heathen 
deity, Diwata, was at hand to assist in the expulsion of 
the Spaniards. The island rose in revolt, except the two 
towns of Loboc and Baclayan. Four towns were burned, . 
the churches sacked, and the sacred images speared. The 
revolt spread to Leyte, where it was headed by the old 
dato, Bancao of Limasaua, who had sworn friendship with 
Legaspi. This insurrection was put down by the alcalde 
maycir of Cebu and the Filipino leaders were hung. On 
Leyte, Bancao was speared in battle, and one of the 
heathen priests suffered the penalty, prescribed by the 
Inquisition for heresy — death by burning. 

Revolt of the Pampangas. — The heavy drafting of 
natives to fell trees and build the ships for the Spanish 
naval expeditions and the Acapulco trade was also a 
cause for insurrection. In 1660 a thousand Pampangas 
were kept cutting in the forests of that province alone. 

THE DUTCH AND MORO WARS. 1600-1663. 207 

Sullen at their heavy labor and at the harshness of their 
overseers, these natives rose in revolt. The sedition 
spread to Pangasinan, Zambales, and Ilocos, and it re- 
quired the utmost efforts of the Spanish forces on land 
and water to suppress the rebellion. 

Uprising of the Chinese. — In spite of the terrible mas- 
sacre, that had been visited upon the Chinese at the 
beginning of the century, they had almost immediately 
commenced returning not only as merchants, but as colo- 
nists. The early restrictions upon their life must have been 
relaxed, for in 1639 there were more than thirty thousand 
living in the Islands, many of them cultivating lands at 
Calamba and at other points on the Laguna de Bay. 

In that year a rebellion broke out, in which the Chinese 
in Manila participated. They seized the church of San 
Pedro Mecati, on the Pasig, and fortified themselves. 
From there they were routed by a combined Filipino and 
Spanish force. The Chinese then broke up into small 
bands, which scattered through the country, looting and 
murdering, but being pursued and cut to pieces by the 
Filipinos. For five months this pillage and massacre went 
on, until seven thousand Chinese were destroyed. By 
the loss of these agriculturists and laborers Manila was 
reduced to great distress. 

Activity of the Moro Pirates. — The task of the Span- 
iards in controlling the Moro dates continued to be 
immensely difficult. During the years following the 
successes of Corcuera and Almonte, the Moros were con- 
tinually plotting. Aid was furnished from Borneo and 
the Celebes, and they were further incited by the Dutch. 
In spite of the vigilance of Zamboanga, small piratical 
excursions continually harassed the Bisayas and the 


Continued Conflicts with the Dutch. — The Dutch, too, 
from time to time showed themselves in Manila. In 1646 
a squadron attacked Zamboanga, and then came north to 
Luzon. The Spanish naval strength was quite unprepared; 
but two galleons, lately arrived from Acapulco, were fitted 
with heavy guns, Dominican friars took their places 
among the gunners, and, under the protection of the 
Virgin of the Rosary, successfully encountered the enemy. 

A year later a fleet of twelve vessels entered Manila Bay, 
and nearly succeeded in taking Cavite. Failing in this, 
they landed in Bataan province, and for some time held 
the coast of Manila Bay in the vicinity of Abucay. The 
narrative of Franciscan missions in 1649, above cited, gives 
town after town in southern Luzon, where church and 
convent had been burned by the Moros or the Dutch. 

The Abandonment of Zamboanga and the Moluccas. — 
The threat of the Dutch made the maintenance of the 
presidio of Zamboanga very burdensome. In 1656 the 
administration of the Moluccas was united with that of 
Mindanao, and the governor of the former, Don Francisco 
de Esteybar, was transferred from Ternate to Zamboanga 
and made lieutenant-governor and captain-general of all 
the provinces of the south. 

Six years later, the Moluccas, so long coveted by the 
Spaniards, and so slowly won by them, together with 
Zamboanga, were wholly abandoned, and to the Spice 
Islands the Spaniards were never to return. This sudden 
retirement from their southern possessions was not, how- 
ever, occasioned by the incessant restlessness of the Moros 
nor by the plottings of the Dutch. It was due to a threat 
of danger from the north. 

Koxinga the Chinese Adventurer. — In 1644, China 
was conquered by the Manchus. Pekin capitulated at 

THE DUTCH AND MORO WARS. 1600-1663. 209 

once and the Ming dynasty was overthrown, but it was 
only by many years of fighting that the Manchus over- 
came the Chinese of the central and southern provinces. 
These were years of turbulance, revolt, and piracy. 

More than one Chinese adventurer rose to a romantic 
position during this disturbed time. One of these adven- 
tm-ers, named It Coan, had been a poor fisherman of 
Chio. He had lived in Macao, where he had been con- 
verted to Christianity, and had been a cargador, or cargo- 
bearer, in Manila. He afterwards went to Japan, and 
engaged in trade. From these humble and laborious 
beginnings, like many another of his persistent country- 
men, he gained great wealth, which on the conquest of the 
Manchus he devoted to piracy. 

His son was the notorious Kue-Sing, or Koxinga, who 
for years resisted the armies of the Manchus, and main- 
tained an independent power over the coasts of Fukien 
and Chekiang. About 1660 the forces of the Manchus 
became too formidable for him to longer resist them upon 
the mainland, and Koxinga determined upon the capture 
of Formosa and the transference of his kingdom to that 

For thirty-eight years this island had been dominated 
by the Dutch, whose fortresses commanded the channel of 
the Pescadores. The colony was regarded as an impor- 
tant one by the Dutch colonial government at Batavia. 
The city of Tai-wan, on the west coast, was a con- 
siderable center of trade. It was strongly protected by 
the fortress of Zealand, and had a garrison of twenty- 
two hundred Dutch soldiers. After months of fighting, 
Koxinga, with an overpowering force of Chinese, com- 
pelled the surrender of the Hollanders and the beautiful 
island passed into his power. 


A Threatened Invasion of the Philippines- — Exalted 
by his success against European arms, Koxinga resolved 
upon the conquest of the Philippines. He summoned to 
his service the Italian Dominican missionary, Ricci, who 
had been living in the province of Fukien, and in the 
spring of 1662 dispatched him as an ambassador to the 
governor of the Philippines to demand the submission of 
the archipelago. 

Manila was thrown into a terrible panic by this de- 
mand, and indeed ho such danger had threatened the 
Spanish in the Philippines since the invasion of Lima- 
hong. The Chinese conqueror had an innumerable army, 
and his armament, stores, and navy had been greatly 
augmented by the surrender of the Dutch. The Span- 
iards, however, were united on resistance. The governor, 
Don Sabiano Manrique de Lara, returned a defiant 
answer to Koxinga, and the most radical measures were 
adopted to place the colony in a state of defense. 

All Chinese were ordered immediately to leave the 
Islands. Fearful of massacre, these wretched people 
again broke out in rebellion, and assaulted the city. 
Many were slain, and other bands wandered off into the 
mountains, where they perished at the hands of the na- 
tives. Others, escaping by frail boats, joined the Chinese 
colonists on Formosa. Churches and convents in the sub- 
urbs of Manila, which might afford shelter to the assailant, 
were razed to the ground. More than all this, the Moluccas 
were forsaken, never again to be recovered by Spaniards; 
and the- presidios of Zamboanga and Cuyo, which served 
as a kind of bridle on the Moros of Job and Mindanao, 
were abandoned. All Spanish troops were concentrated 
in Manila, fortifications were rebuilt, and the population 
waited anxiously for the attack. But the blow never fell. 

THE DUTCH AND MORO WARS. 1600-1663. 211 

Before Ricci arrived at Tai-wan, Koxinga was dead, and 
the peril of Chinese invasion had passed. 

Effects of These Events. — But the Philippines had 
suffered irretrievable loss. Spanish prestige was gone. 
Manila was no longer, as she had been at the commence- 
ment of the century, the capital of the East. Spanish 
sovereignty was again confined to Luzon and the 
Bisayas. The Chinese trade, on which rested the economic 
prosperity of Manila, had once again been ruined. For 
a hundred years the history of the Philippines is a dull 
monotony, quite unrelieved by any heroic activity or the 
presence of noble character.' 

' The Jesuits, on retiring with the Spanish forces from the Moluc- 
cas, brought from Ternate a colony of their converts. These people 
were settled at Marigondon, on the south shore of Manila Bay, where 
their descendants can still be distinguished from the surrounding 
Tagdlog population. 



Political Decline of the Philippines. — For the hundred 
years succeeding the abandonment of the Moluccas, the 
Philippines lost all political significance as a colony. From 
almost every standpoint they were profitless to Spain. 
There were continued deficits, which had to be made 
good from the Mexican treasury. The part of Spain in 
the conquest of the East was over, and the Philippines 
became little more than a great missionary establish- 
ment, presided over by the religious orders. 

Death of Governor Salcedo by the Inquisition, — In 
1663, Lara was succeeded by Don Diego de Salcedo. On 
his arrival, Manila had high hopes of him, which were 
speedily disappointed. He loaded the Acapulco galleon 
with his own private merchandise, and then dispatched it 
earlier than was usual, before the cargoes of the merchants 
were ready. He engaged in a wearisome strife with the 
archbishop, and seems to have worried the ecclesiastic, 
who was aged and feeble, into his grave. At the end of 
a few years he was hated by every one, and a conspiracy 
against him was formed which embraced the religious, 
the army, the civil official^, and the merchants. Beyond 
the reach of the power of ordinary plotters, he fell a vic- 
tim to the commissioner of the Inquisition. 

The Spanish Inquisition, which wrought such cruelty 
and misery in the Peninsula, was carried also to the 
Spanish colonies. As we have seen, it was primarily the 
function of the Dominican order to administer the institij- 


A CENTURY OF OBSCURITY. 1663-176^. 213 

tion. The powers exercised by an inquisitor can scarcely 
be understood at the present day. His methods were 
secret, the charges were not made pubHc, the whole 
proceedings were closeted, and yet so great were the 
powers of this court that none could resist its authority, 
or inquire into its actions. Spain forbade any heretics, 
Jews, or Moors going to the colonies, and did the utmost 
to prevent heresy abroad. She also' established in Amer- 
ica the Inquisition itself. Fortunately, it never attained 
the importance in the Philippines that it had hi Spain. 
In the Philippines there was no "Tribunal," the institu- 
tion being represented solely by a commissioner. 

Death of the Governor. — In 1667, when the unpop- 
ularity of Governor Salcedo was at its height, this com- 
missioner professed to discover in him grounds of heresy 
from the fact that he had been born in Flanders, and 
decided to avenge the Church by encompassing his ruin. 
By secret arrangement, the master of the camp withdrew 
the guard from the palace, and the commissioner, with 
several confederates, gained admission. The door of the 
governor's room was opened by an old woman, who had 
been terrified into complicity, and the governor was seized 
sleeping, with his arms lying at the head of his bed. 

The commissioner informed the governor that he was a 
prisoner of the Holy Office. He was taken to the convent 
of the Augustinians. Here he was kept in chains tmtil he 
could be sent to Mexico, to appear before the Tribunal 
there. The government in Mexico annulled the arrest of 
the commissioner, but Salcedo died at sea on the return 
of the vessel to the Philippines in 1669. 

Colonization of the Ladrone Islands. — In 1668 a Jesuit 
mission under Padre Diego Ijuis de Sanvltores was estab- 
lished on the Ladrones, the first of the many mission 


stations, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, in the South 
Pacific. The islands at that time were well populated and 
fertile, and had drawn the enthusiasm of Padre Sanvitores 
in 1662 when he first sailed to the Philippines. 

The hostility of the Manchus in China, the Japanese per- 
secutions, and the abandonment of Mindanao had closed 
many mission fields, and explains the eagerness with which 
the Jesuits sought the royal permission to Christianize these 
islands, which had been so constantly visited by Spanish 
ships but never before colonized. With Padre Sanvitores 
and his five Jesuit associates were a number of Christian 
Filipino catechists. 

Settlement of Guam. — • The mission landed at Guam, 
and was favorably received. Society among these island- 
ers was divided into castes. The chiefs were known as 
chamorri, which has led to the natives of the Ladrones 
being called "Chamorros." A piece of ground was given 
the Jesuits for a church at the principal town called 
Agadna (Agaiia), and here also a seminary was built for 
the instruction of young men. The queen regent of 
Spain, Maria of Austria, gave an annual sum to this school, 
and in her honor the Jesuits changed the name of the 
islands to the Marianas. The Jesuits preached on eleven 
inhabited islands of the group, and in a year's time had 
baptized thirteen thousand islanders and given instruc- 
tion to twenty thousand. 

Troubles with the Matives at Guam. — This first 
year was the most successful in the history of the mission. 
Almost immediately after, the Jesuits angered the islanders 
by compulsory conversions. There were quarrels in several 
places, and priests, trying to baptize children against the 
wishes of their parents, were killed. In 1670 the Spaniards 
were attacked, and obliged to fortify themselves at Agaiia. 

A CENTURY OF OBSCURITY. 1663-1762. 215 

The Jesuits had a guard of a Spanish captain and 
about thirty Spanish and FiUpino soldiers, who, after 
some slaughter of the natives, compelled them to sue for 
peace. The conditions imposed by the Jesuits were that 
the natives should attend mass and festivals, have their 
children baptized, and send them to be catechised. The 
hatred of the natives was unabated, however, and in 1672 
Sanvltores was killed by them. His biographer claims 
that at his death he had baptized nearly fifty thousand of 
these islanders.' 

■ Depopulation of the Ladrone Islands. — About 1680 
a governor was sent to the islands, and they were or- 
ganized as a dependency of Spain. The policy of the 
governors and the Jesuits was conversion by the sword. 
The natives were persecuted from island to island, and in 
the history of European settlements there is hardly one 
that had more miserable consequences to the inhabitants. 
Disease was introduced and swept off large numbers. 
Others fell resisting the Spaniards, and an entire island 
was frequently depopulated by order of the governor, or 
the desire of the Jesuits to have the natives brought to 
Guam. Many, with little doubt, fled to other archipelagoes. 

If we can trust the Jesuit accounts, there were in the 
whole, group one hundred thousand inhabitants when the 
Spaniards arrived. A generation saw them almost ex- 
tinct. Dampier, who touched at Guam in 1686, says 
then that on the island, where the Spaniards had found 
thirty thousand people, there were not above one himdred 
natives. In 1716 and 1721 other voyagers announced the 
number of inhabitants on Guam at two thousand, but 
only one other island of the group was populated. When 

' See the account of the ' ' Settlement of the Ladrones by the Span- 
iards," in Burney's Voyages in the Pacific, vol. IIT. 


Anson in 1742 visited Guam,' the number had risen to 
four thousand, and there were a few hundred inhabitants 
on Rota; but these seem to have been the whole popu- 
lation. The original native population certainly very 
nearly touched extinction. The islands were from time 
to time colonized from the Philippines, and the present 
population is very largely of Filipino blood. 

Conflicts between Governor and Archbishop. — Mean- 
while, in the Philippines the conflict of the governor with 
the archbishop and the friars continued. The conduct of 
both sides was selfish and outrageous. In 1683 the 
actions of Archbishop Pardo became so violent and sedi- 
tious that the Audiencia decreed his banishment to Pan- 
gasinan or Cagayan. He was taken by force to Lingayan, 
where he was well accommodated but kept imder surveil- 
lance. The Dominicans retaliated by excommunication, 
and the Audiencia thereupon banished the provincial of 
the order from the Islands, and sent several other friars 
to Mariveles. 

But the year following, Governor Vargas was relieved 
by the arrival of his successor, who was favorable to 
the ecclesiastical side of the controversy. The archbishop 
returned and assumed a high hand. He suspended and 
excommunicated on all sides. The oidores were banished 
from the city, and all died in exile in remote portions of 
the archipelago. The ex-governor-general, Vargas, being 
placed under the spiritual ban, sued for pardon and begged 
that his repentance be recognized. 

The archbishop sentenced him to stand daily for the 
space of four months at the entrances to the churches of 
the city and of the Parian, and in the thronged quarter of 
Binondo, attired in the habit of a penitent, with a rope 
about his neck and carrying a lighted candle in his hand. 


He was, however, able to secure a mitigation of this 
sentence, but was required to hve absolutely alone in a 
hut on an island in the Pasig River. He was sent a 
prisoner to Mexico in 1689, but died upon the voyage. 

The various deans and canons who had concurred in the 
archbishop's banishment, as well as other religious with 
whom the prelate had had dissensions, were imprisoned 
or exiled. The bodies of two oidores were, on their death 
and after their burial, disinterred and their bones pro- 

Degeneration of the Colony under Church Rule. — 
Archbishop Pardo died in 1689, but the strife and con- 
fusion which had been engendered continued. There were 
quarrels between the archbishop and the friars, between 
the prelate and the governor. All classes seem to have 
shared the bitterness and the hatred of these unhappy 

The moral tone of the whole colony during the latter 
part of the seventeenth century was lowered. Corruption 
floiu-ished everywhere, and the vigor of the administra- 
tion decayed. Violence went imrebuked, and the way 
was open for the deplorable tragedy in which this strife 
of parties culminated. Certainly no governor could have 
been more supine, and shown greater incapacity and 
weakness of character, than the one who ruled in the time 
of Archbishop Pardo and those that succeeded him. 

Improvements Made by Governor Bustamante. — En- 
richment of the Treasury. — In the year 1717,- however, 
came a governor of a different type, Fernando Manuel de 
Bustamante. He was an old soldier, stern of character 
and severe in his measures. He found the treasury robbed 
and exhausted. Nearly the whole population of Manila 
were in debt to the public funds. Bustamante ordered 


these amounts paid, and to compel their collection he 
attached the cargo of silver arriving by the galleon from 
Acapulco. This cargo was owned by the religious com- 
panies, officials, and merchants, all of whom were in- 
debted to the government. In one year of his vigorous 
administration he raised the sum of three hundred thou- 
sand pesos for the treasury. 

With sums of money again at the disposal of the state, 
Bustamante attempted to revive the decayed prestige and 
commerce of the Islands. 

Refounding of Zamboanga. — In 1718 he refounded and 
rebuilt the presidio of Zamboanga. Not a year had passed, 
since its abandonment years before, that the pirates from 
Borneo and Mindanao had failed to ravage the Bisayas. 
The Jesuits had petitioned regularly for its reestablish- 
ment, and in 1712 the king had decreed its reoccupation. 
The citadel was rebuilt on an elaborate plan under the direc- 
tion of the engineer, Don Juan Sicarra. Besides the usual 
barracks, storehouses, and arsenals, there were, within the 
walls, a church, hospital, and cuartel for the Pampangan 
soldiers. Sixty-one cannon were moimted upon the de- 
fenses. Upon the petition of the Recollects, Bustamante 
also established a presidio at Labo, at the southern point 
of the island of Paragua, whose coasts were attacked by 
the Moros from Sulu and Borneo. 

Treaty with Siam. — In the same year he sent an em- 
bassy to Siam, with the idea of stimulating the commerce 
which had flourished a century before. The reception of 
this embassy was most flattering; a treaty of peace, friend- 
ship, and commerce was made, and on groimd ceded to 
the Spaniards was begun the erection of a factory. 

Improvements in the City of Manila. — How far this 
brave and determined man might have revived the colony 


it is impossible to say. The population of Manila, both 
ecclesiastical and civil, was at this time so sunk in cor- 
ruption and so degenerate as to make almost impossible 
any recuperation except under the rule of a man equally 
determined as Bustamante, but ruling for a long period of 
time. He had not hesitated to order investigations into 
the finances of the Islands, which disclosed defalcations 
amounting to seven hundred thousand pesos. He fear- 
lessly arrested the defaulters, no matter what their station. 
The whole city was concerned in these peculations, conse- 
quently the utmost fear and apprehension existed on all 
sides; and Bustamante, hated as well as dreaded, was 
compelled to enforce his reforms single-handed. 

His Murder. — He was opposed by the friars and defied 
by the archbishop, but, notwithstanding ecclesiastical con- 
demnation, he went to the point of ordering the arrest of 
the prelate. The city rose in sedition, and a mob, headed 
by friars, proceeded to the palace of the governor, broke 
in upon him, and, as he faced them alone and without 
support, killed him in cold blood (October 11, 1719). 

The archbishop proclaimed himself governor and presi- 
dent of the Audiencia. The oidores and officials who had 
been placed under arrest by Bustamante were released, 
and his work overthrown. The new government had 
neither the courage nor the inclination to continue Busta- 
mante's policy, and in 1720 the archbishop called a coun- 
cil of war, which decreed the abandonment of the fort at 

When the news of this murder reached Spain, the king ' 
ordered an investigation and the punishment of the guilty, 
and in 1721 Governor Torre Campo arrived to put these 
mandates into execution. The culprits, however, were so 
high and so influential that the governor did not dare 


proceed against them; and although the commands of the 
king were reiterated in 1724, the assassins of Biistamante 
were never brought to justice. 

Treaty with the Sultan of Jolo. — In spite of the cow- 
ardly policy of the successors of Bustamante, the presidio 
of Zamboanga was not abandoned. So poorly was it ad- 
ministered, however, that it was not effective to. prevent 
Moro piracy, and the attacks upon the Bisaya and Calar 
mianes continued. In 1721 a treaty was formed with 
the sultan of Jolo providing for trade between Manila and 
Jolo, the return or ransom of captives, and the restitution 
to Spain of the island of Basilan. 

The Moro Pirates of Tawi Tawi. — To some extent this 
treaty seems to have prevented assaults from Jolo, but in 
1730 the Moros of Tawi Tawi fell upon Paragua and the 
Calamianes, and in 1731 another expedition from the 
south spent nearly a whole year cruising and destroying 
among the Bisayas. 

Deplorable State of Spanish Defenses. — The defenses 
of the Spaniards during these many decades were contin- 
ually in a deplorable state, their arms were wretched, and, 
except in moments of great apprehension, no attention 
was given to fortifications, to the preservation of artillery, 
nor to the supply of ammunition. Sudden attacks ever 
found the Spaniards unprepared. Military unreadiness 
was the normal condition of this archipelago from these 
early centuries down to the destruction of the Spanish 
armament by the American fleet. 

The Economic Policy of Spain. — Restrictions of Trade. 
— During the closing years of the seventeenth century 
and the beginning of the eighteenth, commerce seemed to 
have been actually paralyzed. That brilliant trade which 
is described by Morga, and which was at its height aboilt 


1605, was a few years later defeated by the miserable 
economic policy of Spain, pandering to the demands of 
the merchants of Cadiz and Seville. 

Spain's economic policy had only in view benefits to 
the Peninsula. "The Laws of the Indies" abound with 
edicts for the purpose of limiting and crippling colonial 
commerce and industry, wherever it was imagined that it 
might be prejudicial to the protected industries of Spain. 
The manufacturers of Seville wished to preserve the col- 
onies, both of America and of the Indies, as markets for 
their monopoly wares ; and in this policy, for two centuries, 
they had the support of the crown. The growing trade 
between Mexico and the Philippines had early been re- 
garded with suspicion, and legislation was framed to reduce 
it to the lowest point compatible with the existence of the 

None of the colonies of America could conduct commerce 
with the Philippines except Mexico, and here all communica- 
tion must pass through the port of Acapulco. This trade 
was limited to the passage of a single vessel a year. In 1605 
two galleons were permitted, but their size was reduced 
to three hundred tons. They were allowed to carry out 
500,000 pesos of silver, but no more than 250,000 pesos' 
worth of Chinese products could be returned. Neither 
the Spaniards of Mexico nor any part of America could 
traffic directly with China, nor could Spanish vessels pass 
from Manila to the ports of Asia. Only those goods 
could be bought which Chinese merchants themselves 
brought to the Philippines. 

Selfishness of Merchants in Spain. , — Even these re- 
strictions did not satisfy the jealousy of the merchants of 
Spain. They complained that the royal orders limiting 
the traffic were not regarded, and they insisted upon so 


vexatious a supervision of this commerce, and surrounded 
infractions of the law with such terrible penalties, that 
the trade was not maintained even to the amount per- 
mitted by law. Spanish merchants even went to the 
point of petitioning for the abandonment of the Philip- 
pines, on the ground that the importations from China 
were prejudicial to the industry of the Peninsula. 

The colonists upon the Pacific coast of America suffered 
from the lack of those commodities demanded by civilized 
life, which could only reach them as they came from 
Spain through the port of Porto Bello and the Isthmus 
of Panama. Without question, an enormous and bene- 
ficial commerce could have been conducted by the Philip- 
pines with the provinces of western America.' 

Trade Between South .America and the Philippines 
Forbidden. — But this traffic was absolutely forbidden, 
and to prevent Chinese and Philippine goods from enter- 
ing South America, the trade between Mexico and Peru 
was in 1636 wholly suppressed by a decree. This decree, 
as it stands upon the pages of the great Recopilacion, is 
a,n epitome of the insane economic policy of the Spaniard. 
It cites that whereas "it had been permitted that from 
Peru to New Spain there should go each year two vessels 
for commerce and traffic to the amount of two hundred 
thousand ducats [which later had been reduced to one 
hundred thousand ducats], and because there had in- 
creased in Peru to an excessive amount the commerce in 
the fabrics of China, in spite of the many prohibitions 
that had been imposed, and in order absolutely to remove 

■ Some of the benefits of such a trade are set forth by the Jesuit, 
Alonzo de Ovalle, in his Historical Relation of the Kingdom of Chili, 
printed in Rome, 1649. In Churchill's Collection of Voyages and 
Travels, vol. III. 

A CENTURY OF OBSCURITY. 1663-1762. 223 

the occasion for the future, we order and command the 
officers of Peru and New Spain that they invariably pro- 
hibit and suppress this commerce and traffic between the 
two kingdoms by all the channels through which it is 
conducted, maintaining this prohibition firmly and con- 
tinually for the future." ' 

In 1718 the merchants of Seville and Cadiz still com- 
plained that their profits were being injured by even the 
limited importation of Chinese silks into Mexico. There- 
upon absolute prohibition of import of Chinese silks, 
either woven or in thread, was decreed. Only linens, 
spices, and supplies of such things as were not produced 
in Spain could be brought into Mexico. This order was 
reaffirmed in 1720, with the provision that six months 
would be allowed the people of Mexico to consume the 
Chinese silks which they had in their possession, and 
thereafter all such goods must be destroyed. 

Ineffectiveness of These Restrictions. — These meas- 
ures, while ruining the commerce of the Philippines, 
were as a matter of fact ineffective to accomplish the 
result desired. Contraband trade between China and 
America sprang up in violation of the law. Silks to the 
value of four milhon pesos were annually smuggled into 
America.^ In 1734 the folly and uselessness of such laws 
was somewhat recognized by the Council of the Indies, 
and a cedula was issued restoring the permission to trade 
in Chinese silks and raising the value of cargoes destined 
for Acapulco to five hundred thousand pesos, and the 
quantity of silver for return to one million pesos. The 
celebrated traffic of the galleon was resumed and continued 
xmtil the year 1815. 

1 Recopilaeion de Leyes de las Indias, lib. VIII., titulo 45, ley 78. 
' Montero y Vidal: Historia de Filipinas, vol. I., p. 460. 


An Attempt to Colonize the Carolines. — Southeastward 
of the PhiHppines, in that part of the Pacific which is 
known as Micronesia, there is an archipelago of small 
islands called the Carolines. The westernmost portion of 
the group also bear the name of the Pelews, or Palaos. 
Inasmuch as these islands were eventually acquired by 
Spain and remained in her possession down to the year 
1898, it may be well to state something at this time of 
the attempt made by the Jesuits in 1731 to colonize them. 

Certain of these little islands were seen several times by 
expeditions crossing the Pacific as early as the latter part 
of the sixteenth century, but after the trade between 
Mexico and the Philippines had been definitely settled 
upon, a fixed course was followed westward from Acapulco 
to Guam, from which there was little variation, and dur- 
ing the seventeenth century these islands passed quite 
out of mind; but in the year 1696 a party of natives, 
twenty men and ten women, were driven by storms far 
from their home in the Carolines upon the eastern coast 
of Samar. It seems that similar parties of castaways 
from the Pelew and Caroline Islands had been known to 
reach Mindanao and other parts of the Philippines at an 
even earlier date. These last came under the observation 
of the Jesuit priests on Samar, who baptized them, and, 
learning from them of the archipelago from which they 
had been carried, were filled with missionary ambition 
to visit and Christianize these Pacific islanders. 

This idea was agitated by the Jesuits, until about 
1730 royal permission was granted to the enterprise. A 
company of Jesuits in the following year sailed for the 
Ladrones and thence south until the Carolines were discov- 
ered. They landed on a small island not far from Yap. 
Here they succeeded in baptizing numerous natives and 


in establishing a mission. Fourteen of their number, 
headed by the priest, Padre Cantava, remained on the 
island while the expedition returned to secure reenforce- 
ments and supplies. Unfortunately, this succor was de- 
layed for more than a year, and when Spanish vessels 
with missionary reinforcements on board again reached 
the Carolines in 1733, the mission had been entirely de- 
stroyed and the Spaniards, with Padre Cantava, had been 
killed. These islands have been frequently called the 
"New Philippines." 

Conditions of the Filipinos during the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury. — During the most of the eighteenth century, data 
are few upon the condition of the Filipino people. There 
seems to have been little progress. Conditions certainly 
were against the social or intellectual advance of the 
native race. Perhaps, however, their material well-being 
was quite as great during these years, when Httle was 
attempted, as during the governorships of the more ambi- 
tious and enterprising Spaniards who had characterized 
the earlier period of Philippine history. 

Provincial Governments. — Provincial administration 
seems to have fallen almost wholly into the hands of the 
missionaries. The priests made themselves the local rulers 
throughout the Christianized portion of the archipelago. 

Insurrection in Bohol. — Insurrection seems especially 
to have troubled the island of Bohol during most of the 
eighteenth century, and in 1750 an insurrection broke out 
which practically established the independence of a large 
portion of the island, and which was not suppressed for 
thirty-five years. The trouble arose in the town of Ina- 
banga, where the Jesuit priest Morales had greatly antag- 
onized and imbittered the natives by his severity. Some 
apostasized, and went to the hills. One of these men was 


killed by the orders of the priest and his body refused 
Christian burial, and left uncared for and exposed. 

A brother of this man, named Dog6hoy, infuriated by 
this indignity, headed a sedition which shortly included 
three thousand natives. The priest was killed, and his own 
body left by the road unburied. In spite of the efforts of 
the alcalde of Cebu, Dogohoy was able to maintain him- 
self, and practically established a small native state, which 
remained until the occupation of the island by the Recol- 
lects, after the Jesuits had been expelled from the Span- 
ish dominions. 

Activity of the Jesuits. — During the eighteenth century 
the Jesuits alone of the religious orders seemed to have 
been active in prosecuting their efforts and seeking new 
fields for conversion. The sloth and inactivity which 
overcame the other orders place in greater contrast 
the ambition and the activities, both secular and spiritual, 
of the Jesuits. 

Conversion of the Sultan Alim ud Din. — In 1747 
they established a mission even on Jolo. They were 
unable to overcome the intense antagonism of the Moro 
panditas and datos, but they apparently won the young 
sultan, Alim ud Din, whose strange story and shifting 
fortunes have been variously told. One of the Jesuits, 
Padre Villelmi, was skilled in the Arabic language, and 
this familiarity with the language and literature of Mo- 
hammedanism doubtless explains his ascendency over the 
mind of the sultan. Alim ud Din was not a strong man. 
His power over the subordinate datos was small, and in 
1748 his brother, Bantilan, usurped his place and was 
proclaimed sultan of Jolo. 

Alim ud Din, with his family and numerous escort, came 
to Zamboanga, seeking the aid of the Spanish against 


his brother. From Zamboanga he was sent to Manila. 
On his arrival, January 3, 1749, he was received with all 
the pomp and honor due to a prince of high rank. A 
house for his entertainment and his retinue of seventy per- 
sons was prepared in Binondo. A pubUc entrance was 
arranged, which took place some fifteen days after his 
reaching the city. Triumphal arches were erected across 
the streets, which were lined with more than two thousand 
native militia under arms. The sultan was publicly re- 
ceived in the hall of the Audiencia, where the governor 
promised to lay his case before the king of Spain. The 
sultan was showered with presents, which included chains 
of gold, fine garments, precious gems, and gold canes, 
while the government sustained the expense of his 

Following this reception, steps were taken for his con- 
version. His spiritual advisers cited to him the example 
of the Emperor Constantine whose conversion enabled him 
to effect triumphant conquests over his enemies. Under 
these representations Alim ud Din expressed his desire for 
baptism. The governor-general, who at this time was a 
priest, the bishop of Nueva Segovia, was very anxious 
that the rite should take place; but this was opposed by 
his spiritual superior, the archbishop of Manila, who, with 
some others, entertained doubts as to the sincerity of the 
sultan's profession. 

In order to accomplish his baptism, the governor 
sent him to his own diocese, where at Paniqui, on the 
29th of April, 1750, the ceremony took place with great 
solemnity. On the return of thp party to Manila, the 
sultan was received with great pomp, and in his honor 

' Relacion de la Entrada del Sultan Rey de Jolo, in Archivo del 
Bihlidfilo Filipino, vol. I. 


were held games, theatrical representations, fire-works, and 
bull-fights. This was the high-water mark of the sultan's 

Failure to Reinstate Alim ud Din. — Meanwhile the 
usurper, Bantilan, was giving abundant evidence of his 
hostility. The Spaniards were driven from Jolo, and the 
fleets of the Moros again ravaged the Bisayas. In July 
arrived the new governor, the Marquis of Obando, who 
determined to restore Alim ud Din and suppress the Moro 

An expedition set sail, with the sultan on board, 
and went as far as Zamboanga, but accomplished noth- 
ing. Here the conduct of the sultan served to confirm 
the doubts of the Spaniards as to the sincerity of his 
friendship. He was arrested, and returned to Manila, and 
imprisoned in the fortress of Santiago. With varying 
treatment he remained in the hands of the Spaniards 
until 1763, when he was returned to Jolo by the English. 

Great Increase in Moro Piracy. — The year stated 
to have been the bloodiest in the history of Moro piracy. 
No part of the Bisayas escaped ravaging in this year, 
while the Camarines, Batangas, and Albay suffered equally 
with the rest. The conduct of the pirates was more than or- 
dinarily cruel. Priests were slain, towns wholly destroyed, 
and thousands of captives were carried south into Moro 
slavery. The condition of the Islands at the end of this 
year was probably the most deplorable in their history. 

Reforms under General Arandla. — The demoralization 
and misery with which Obando's rule closed were reheved 
somewhat by the capable government of Arandia, who 
succeeded him. Arandla was one of the few men of 
talent, energy, and integrity who stood at the head of 
affairs in these islands during two centuries. 

A CENTURY 'OF OBSCURITY. 166S-1762. 229 

He reformed the greatly disorganized military force, 
establishing what was known as the "Regiment of the 
King," made up very largely of Mexican soldiers. He also 
formed a corps of artillerists composed of Filipinos. 
These were regular troops, who received from Arandia 
sufficient pay to enable them to live decently and like an 

He reformed the arsenal at Cavite, and, in spite of 
opposition on all sides, did something to infuse efficiency 
and honesty into the, government. At the head of the 
armament which had been sent against the Mores he 
placed a Jesuit priest. Father Ducos. A capable officer 
was also sent to command the presidio at Zamboanga, 
and while Moro piracy was not stopped, heavy retaliation 
was visited upon the pirates. 

Arandia's most popular act of government was the 
expulsion of the Chinese from the provinces, and in large 
part from the city. They seem to have had in their 
hands then, perhaps even more than now, the commerce 
or small trade between Manila and provincial towns. To 
take over this trade, Arandia founded a commercial com- 
pany of Spaniards and mestizos, which lasted only for a 
year. The Christianized Chinese were allowed to remain 
imder license, and for those having shops in Manila 
Arandia founded the Alcayceria of San Fernando. It 
consisted of a great square of shops built about an open 
interior. It stood in Binondo, on the present Calle de 
San Fernando, in what is still a populous Chinese quarter. 

Death of Arandia and Decline of the Colony. — Arandia 
died in May, 1759, and the government was assumed by 
the bishop of Cebu, who in turn was forced from his 
position by the arrival of the archbishop of "Manila, Don 
Manuel Rojo. The archbishop revoked the celebrated 


orders of good government which Arandia had put' into 
force, and the colony promised to relapse once more into 
its customary dormant condition. This was,, however, 
prevented by an event which brought to an end the long 
period of obscurity and inertia under which the colony 
had been gradually decaying, and introduced, in a way, a 
new period of its history. This was the capture of the 
Philippine Islands by the British in 1762. 



The New Philosophy of the Eighteenth Century. — The 

middle of the. eighteenth century in Europe was a time 
when ideas were greatly liberalized. A philosophy be- 
came current which professed to look for its authority 
not to churches or hereditary custom and privilege, but 
to the laws of God as they are revealed in the natural 
world. Men taught that if we could only follow nature 
we could not do wrong. "Natural law" became the basis 
for a great amount of political and social discussion and 
the theoretical foundation of many social rights. The 
savage, ungoverned man was by many European philoso- 
phers and writers supposed to live a freer, more whole- 
some and more natural life than the man who is bound 
by the conventions of society and the laws of state. 

Most of this reasoning we now know to be scientifically 
untrue. The savage and the hermit are not, in actual 
fact, types of human happiness and freedom. Ideal life 
for man is found only in governed society, where there is 
order and protection, and where also should be freedom of 
opportimity. But to the people of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, and especially to the scholars of France, where the 
government was monarchical and oppressive, and where 
the people were terribly burdened by the aristocracy, this 
teaching was welcomed as a new gospel. Nor was it de- 
void of grand and noble ideas — ideas which, carried out 
in a conservative way, might have bettered society. 

It is from this philosophy and the revolution which 



succeeded it that the world received the modem ideas 
of Hberty, equality, fraternity, and democracy. These 
ideas, having done their work in America and Europe, 
are here at work in the Philippines to-day. It remains 
to be seen whether a society can be rebuilt here on these 
principles, and whether Asia too will be reformed under 
their influence. 

Colonial Conflicts between the Great European Coun- 
tries. — During the latter half of the eighteenth century 
there culminated the long struggle for colonial empire 
between European states which we have been following. 
We have seen how colonial conquest was commenced by 
the Portuguese, who were very shortly followed by the 
Spaniards, and how these two great Latin powers at- 
tempted to exclude the other European peoples from the 
rich Far East and the great New World which they had 

We have seen how this attempt failed, how the Dutch 
and the English broke in upon this gigantic reserve, drove 
the Spanish fleets from the seas, and despoiled and 
took of this great empire almost whatever they would. 
The Dutch and English then fought between themselves. 
The English excluded the Dutch from North America, 
capturing their famous colony of New Amsterdam, now 
New York, and incorporating it (1674) with their other 
American colonies, which later became the United States 
of America. But in the East Indies the Dutch main- 
tained their trade and power, gradually extending from 
island to island, until they gained — what they still pos- 
sess — an almost complete monopoly of spice production. 

War between England and France. — In India, England 
in the eighteenth century won great possessions and laid 
the foundation for what has been an almost complete 


subjugation of this Eastern empire. Here, however, and 
even more so than in America, England encountered 
a royal and brilhant antagonist in the monarch of 

French exploration in North America had given France 
claims to the two great river systems of the St. Lawrence 
and the Mississippi, the latter by far the greatest and 
richest region of the temperate zone. So, during much 
of this eighteenth century, England and France were in- 
volved in wars that had for their prizes the possession 
of the continent of North America and the great penin- 
sula of India. 

This conflict reached its climax between 1756 and 1763. 
Both states put forth all their strength. France called to 
her support those countries whose reigning families were 
allied to her by blood, and in this way Spain was drawn 
into the struggle. The monarchs of both France and 
Spain belonged to the great house of Bourbon. War was 
declared between England and Spain in 1761. Spain was 
totally unfitted for the combat. She could inflict no in- 
jury upon England and simply lay impotent and helpless 
to retaliate, while English fleets in the same year took 
Havana in the west and Manila in the east. 

English Victory over French in India and America. 
— English power in India was represented during these 
years by the greatest and most striking figure in Eng- 
land's colonial history — Lord Clive. To him is due the 
defeat of France in India, the capture of her possessions, 
and the founding of the Indian Empire, which is still 
regarded as England's greatest possession. The French 
were expelled from India in the same year that the great 
citadel of New France in America — Quebec — was taken 
by the English under General Wolfe. 



The Philippines under the English. — Expedition from 
India to the Philippines. — Lord Clive was now free 
to strike a blow at France's ally, Spain; and in Madras 
an expedition was prepared to destroy Spanish power in 
the Philippines. Notice of the preparation of this expe- 
dition reached Manila from several sources in the spring 
and summer of 1762 ; but with that fatality which pur- 

Church at Halate. 

sued the Spaniard to the end of his history in the Philip- 
pines, no preparations were made by him, until on the 22d 
of September a squadron of thirteen vessels anchored in 
Manila Bay. 

Through the mist, the stupid and negligent authorities 
of Manila mistook them for Chinese trading-junks; but it 
was the fleet of the English Admiral Cornish, with a force 
of five thousand British and Indian soldiers xmder the com- 
mand of General Draper. For her defense Manila had 


only 550 men of the "Regiment of the King" and eighty 
Filipino artillerists. Yet the Spaniards determined to 
make resistance from behind the walls of the city. 

Surrender of Manila to the English. — The English 
disembarked and occupied Malate. From the churches of 
Malate, Ermita, and Santiago the British bombarded 
Manila, and the Spaniards replied from the batteries of 
San Andres and San Diego, the firing not being very effec- 
tive on either side. 

On the 25th, Draper summoned the city to surrender; 
but a council of war, held by the archbishop, who was also 
governor, decided to fight on. Thirty-six hundred Fili- 
pino militia from Pampanga, Bulacan, and Laguna 
marched to the defense of the city, and on the 3rd 
of October two thousand of these Filipinos made a sally 
from the walls and recklessly assaulted the English lines, 
but were driven back with slaughter. On the night of 
the 4th of October a breach in the walls was made by 
the artillery, and early in the morning of the 5th four 
hundred English soldiers entered ahnost without resis- 
tance. A company of militia on guard at the Puerto Real 
was bayoneted and the English then occupied the Plaza, 
and here received the surrender of the fort of Santiago. 

The English agreed not to interfere with religious 
liberty, and honors of war were granted to the Spanish 
soldiers. Guards were placed upon the convent of the 
nuns of Santa Clara and the beaterios, and the city was 
given over to pillage, which lasted for forty hours, and 
in which many of the Chinese assisted. 

Independent Spanish Capital under Anda at Bu- 
lacan. — The English were thus masters of the city, but 
during their period of occupation they never extended 
their power far beyond the present limits of Manila. Pre- 


vious to the final assault and occupation of Manila, the 
authorities had nominated the oidor, Don Simon de Anda y 
Salazar, lieutenant-governor and captain-general of the 
Islands, with instructions to maintain the country in its 
obedience to the king of Spain. Anda left the capital on 
the night of October 4, passing in a little banca through 
the nipa swamps and esteros on the north shore of Manila 
Bay to the provincial capital of Bulacan. 

Here he called together the provincial of the Augus- 
tinian monks, the alcalde mayor of the province, and some 
other Spaniards. They resolved to form an independent 
government representing Spain, and to continue the resis- 
tance. This they were able to do as long as the British 
remained in the Islands. The English made a few short 
expeditions into Bulacan and up the Pasig River, but 
there was no hard fighting and no real effort made to 
pursue Anda's force. The Chinese welcomed the English 
and gave them some assistance, and for this Anda slew 
and hung great numbers of them. 

The Philippines Returned to Spain. — By the Treaty 
of Paris in 1763, peace was made, by which France sur- 
rendered practically all her colonial possessions to Eng- 
land; but England returned to Spain her captures in 
Cuba and the Philippines. In March, 1764, there arrived 
the Spanish frigate "Santa Rosa," bringing the first 
" Lieutenant of the King for the Islands," Don Francisco de 
la Torre, who brought with him news of the Treaty of 
Paris and the orders to the English to abandon the Islands. 

Resistance of the English hy the Friars. — In re- 
sistance to the English and in the efforts to maintain 
Spanish authority, a leading part had been taken by the 
friars. " T he sacred orders," says Martinez de Zuiiiga,' 

' Historia de Filipinas, p. 682. 


"had much to do with the success of Senor Anda. They 
maintained the Indians of their respective administrations 
loyal to the orders; they inspired the natives with horror 
against the Enghsh as enemies of the king and of religion, 
inciting them to die fighting to resist them; they contrib- 
uted their estates and their property; and they exposed 
their own persons to great dangers." The friars were cer- 
tainly most interested in retaining possession of the Islands 
and had most to lose by their falling into English hands. 

Increase of the Jesuits in Wealth and Power. — In this 
zealous movement for defense, however, the Jesuits bore 
no part; and there were charges made against them of 
treasonable intercourse with the English, which may 
have had foundation, and which are of significance in 
the light of what subsequently occurred. 

At the close of the eighteenth century, all the governments 
of Catholic Europe were aroused with jealousy and sus- 
picious hatred against the Jesuits. The society, organized 
primarily for missionary labor, had gradually taken on much 
of a secular character. The society was distinguished, as 
we have seen in its history in the Philippines, by men 
with great capacity and liking for what we may call prac- 
tical affairs as distinguished from purely religious or de- 
votional life. The Jesuits were not alone missionaries 
and orthodox educators, but they were scientists, geog- 
raphers, fmanciers, and powerful and almost independent 
administrators among heathen peoples. They had en- 
gaged so extensively and shrewdly in trade that their 
estates, warehouses, and exchanges bound together the 
fruitful fields of colonial provinces with the busy marts 
and money-centers of Europe. Their wealth was believed 
to be enormous. Property invested and carefuUy guarded, 
it was rapidly increasing. 


What, however, made the order exasperating alike to 
rulers and peoples were the powerful political intrigues 
in which members of the order engaged. Strong and 
masterful men themselves, the field of state affairs was 
irresistibly attractive. Their enemies charged that they 
were unscrupulous in the means which they employed to 
accomplish political ends. It is quite certain that the 
Jesuits were not patriotic in their piu-poses or plans. 
They were an international corporation; their members 
belonged to no one nation; to them the Society was greater 
and more worthy of devotion than any state, in which 
they themselves lived and worked. 

Dissolution of the Society of Jesus. — Europe had, how- 
ever, reached the belief, to which it adheres to-day, that 
a man must be true to the country in which he lives and 
finds shelter and protection and in which he ranks as a 
political member, or else incur odimn and punishment. 
Thus it was their indifference to national feeling that 
brought about the ruin of the Jesuits. It is significant 
that the rulers, the most devoted to Catholicism, followed 
one another in decreeing their expulsion from their 
dominions. In 1759 they were expelled from Portugal, 
in 1764 from France, and April 2, 1767, the decree of con- 
fiscation and banishment from Spain and all Spanish 
possessions was issued by King Carlos III. Within a 
year thereafter, the two most powerful princes of Italy, 
the king of Naples and the Duke of Parma, followed, and 
then the Grand Master of the Knights of Malta expelled 
them from that island. , The friends of the order wera 
powerless to withstand this united front of Catholic mon- 
archs, and in July, 1773, Pope Clement XIV. suppressed 
and dissolved the society, which was not restored until 


The Jesuits Expelled from the Philippines. — The order 
expelling the Jesuits from the Philippines was put into 
effect in the year 1767. The instructions authorized the 
governor in case of resistance to use force of arms as 
against a rebellion/ Besides their colleges in Manila, 
Tondo, Cavite, Leyte, Samar, Bohol, and Negros, the 
Jesuits administered ciu-acies in the vicinity of Manila, in 
Cavite province, in Mindoro and Marinduque, while the 
islands of Bohol, Samar, and Leyte were completely under 
their spiritual jurisdiction. In Mindanao their missions, 
a dozen or more in nimiber, were found on both the north- 
ern and southern coasts. Outside of the Philippines 
proper they were the inissionaries on the Ladrones, or 
Marianas. Their property in the Philippines, which was 
confiscated by the government, amounted to 1,320,000 
pesos, although a great deal of their wealth was secreted 
and escaped seizure through the connivance of the gov- 
ernor, Raon. 

Governor Anda's Charges against the Religious Orders. 
— Don Simon de Anda had been received in Spain with 
great honor for, the defense which he had made in the 
Islands, and in 1770 returned as governor of the Philip- 
pines. His appointment was bitterly resented by the 
friars. In 1768, Anda had addressed to the king a memo- 
rial upon the disorders in the Philippines, in which he 
openly charged the friars with commercialism, neglect of 
their spiritual duties, oppression of the natives, opposi- 
tion to the teaching of the Spanish language, and scanda- 
lous interference with civil officials and affairs. Anda's 
remedy for these abuses was the rigorous enforcement of 

' These orders and other documents dealing with the Jesuit expul- 
sion are printed in Montero y Vidal, Historia de Filipinas, vol. II. 
p. 180 sq. 



the laws actually existing for the punishment of such con- 
duct and the return to Spain of friars who refused to 
respect the law. 

He was, however, only partially successful in his policy. 
During the six years of his rule, he labored unremittingly 
to restore the Spanish government and to lift it from the 
decadence and corruption that had so long characterized 

<^-- ■• ragji^y . ■ 

Anda Monument. 

it. There were strong traits of the modern man in this 
independent and incorruptible official. If he made many 
enemies, it is, perhaps, no less to the credit of his char- 
acter;' and if in the few years of his official life he was 
unable to restore the colony, it must be remembered that 
he had few assistants upon whom to rely and was without 
adequate means. 

The Moro Pirates. — The Moros were again upon their 
forays, and in 1771 even attacked Aparri, on the extreme 



northern coast of Luzon, and captured a Spanish mission- 
ary. Anda reorganized the Armada de Pintados, and 
toward the end 
of his life created 
also the Marina 
Sutil, a fleet of hght 
gunboats for the 
defense of the 
coasts against the 
attacks of pirates. 

Failure of an 
English Settle- 
ment, — The hos- 
tility of the Moro 
rulers was compli- 
cated by the inter- 
ference of the Eng- 
lish, who, after the 
evacuation of Ma- 
nila, continued to 
haunt the Sulu archipelago with the apparent object of 
effecting a settlement. By treaty with the Moro datos, 

they secured the ' ces- 
sion of the island of 
Balanbangan, off the 
north coast of Borneo. 
This island was forti- 
fied and a factory was 
established, but in 
1775 the Moros at- 
tacked the English 
with great fury and destroyed the entire garrison, ex- 
cept the governor and five others, who escaped on board 

Calinga Axe. 

Moro Brass Vessel. 


a vessel, leaving a great quantity of arms and wealth to 
the spoils of the Moros. The English factors, who had 
taken up business on the island of Jolo, fled in a Chinese 
junk; and these events, so unfortunate to the English, 
ended their attempts to gain a position in the Jolo archi- 
pelago until many years later. 

Increase in Agriculture. — Anda died in October, 1776, 
and his successor, Don Jose Basco de Vargas, was not 
appointed until July, 1778. With Basco's governorship 
we see the beginning of those numerous projects for the 
encouragement of agriculture and industry which charac- 
terized the last century of Spanish rule. His "Plan 
general economico" contemplated the encouragement of 
cotton-planting, the propagation of mulberry-trees and 
silk-worms, and the cultivation of spices and sugar. Pre- 
miums were offered for success in the introduction of these 
new products and for the encouragement of manufactur- 
ing industries suitable to the country and its people. 

Out of these plans grew the admirable Sociedad Eco- 
nomica de Amigos del Pais, which was founded by 
Basco in 1780. The idea was an es^cellent one, and the 
society, although suffering long periods of inactivity, 
lasted for fully a century, and from time to time was 
useful in the improvement and development of the 
country, and stimulated agricultural experiments through 
its premiums and awards. 

Establishment of the Tohacco Industry. — Up to this 
time the Philippine revenues had been so unproductive 
that the government was largely supported by a sub- 
sidy of 1250,000 a year paid by Mexico. Basco was the 
first to put the revenues of the Islands upon a lucrative 
basis. To him was due the establishment, in 1782, of the 
famous tobacco monopoly (estanco de tabacos) which be- 




Igorrote Drum. 

came of great im- 
portance many years 
later, as new and 
rich tobacco lands 
like the C a g a y a n 
were brought under 

Favorable Com- 
mercial Legisla- 
tion. — The change 
in economic ideas, 
which had come over 
Europe through the 
liberalizing thought 
of the eighteenth century, is shown also by a most ra- 
dical step to direct into new channels 
the commerce of the Philippines. This 
was the creation in 1785 of a great trad- 
ing corporation with special privileges and 
crown protection, "The Royal Company 
of the Philippines." 

The company was given a complete 
monopoly of all the commerce between 
Spain and the Philippines, except the 
long-established direct traffic between Ma- 
nila and Acapulco. All the old laws, 
designed to prevent the importation into 
the Peninsula of wares of the Orient, 
were swept away. Philippine products 
were exempted from all customs duty 
either on leaving Manila or entering 
Spain. The vessels of the company were 
permitted to visit the ports of China, and the ancient 

Igorrote Shield. 


and absurd prohibition, which prevented the merchants 
of Manila from trading with India and China, was re- 

Though still closing the Philippines against foreign 
trade, this step was a veritable revolution in the com- 
mercial legislation of the Philippines. Had the project 
been ably and heartily supported, it might have pro- 
duced a development that would have advanced pros- 
perity half a century; but the people of Manila did not 
welcome the opening of this new line of communica- 
tion. The ancient commerce with Acapulco was a val- 
uable monopoly to those who had the right to participate 
in it, and their attitude toward the new company was 
one either of indifference or hostility. 

In 1789 the port of Manila was opened and made free 
to the vessels of all foreign nations for the space of three 
years, for the importation and sale exclusively of the 
wares of Asia; but the products of Europe, with the ex- 
ception of Spain, were forbidden. 

The Royal Company was rechartered in 1805, and en- 
joyed its monopoly until 1830, when its privileges lapsed 
and Manila was finally opened to the ships of foreign 

Conquest of the Igorrote Provinces of Luzon. — Basco 
was a zealous governor and organized a number of mili- 
tary expeditions to occupy the Igorrote country in the 
north. In 1785 the heathen Igorrotes of the missions of 
Ituy and Paniqui in Nueva Vizcaya revolted and had to 
b^ reconquered by a force of musketeers from Cagayan. 

Conquest of the Batanes Islands. — Basco also effected 
the conquest of the Batanes Islands to the north of Luzon, 
establishing garrisons and definitely annexing them to 
the colony. The Dominican missionaries long before this 


time had attempted to convert these islands to Chris- 
tianity, but the poverty of the people and the fierceness 
of the typhoons which sweep these little islands prevented 
the cultivation of anything more than camotes and taro, 
and had made them unprofitable to hold. Basco was 
honored, however, for his reoccupation of these islands, 
and on his return to Spain, at the .expiration of his gov- 
ernorship, received the title of " Count of the Conquest of 
the Batanes." * 

A Scientific Survey of the Coast of the Islands. — About 
1790 the Philippines were visited by two Spanish frigates, 
the "Descubierta" and the "Atrevida," under the com- 
mand of Captain Malaspina. These vessels formed an 
exploring expedition sent out by the Spanish government 
to make a hydrographic and astronomic survey of the 
coasts of Spanish America, the Ladrones, and the Philip- 
pines. It was one of those creditable enterprises for the 
widening of scientific knowledge which modern govern- 
ments have successively and with great honor conducted. 

The expedition charted the Strait of San Bernardino, 
the coasts of several of the Bisayan Islands, and Mindanao. 
One of the scientists of the party was the young botanist, 
Don Antonio Pineda, who died in Ilocos in 1792, but whose 
studies in the flora of the Philippines thoroughly estab- 
lished his reputation. A monument to his memory was 
erected near the church in Malate, but it has since suffered 
from neglect and is now falling in ruins. 

Establishment of a Permanent Navy in the Philippines. 
— The intentions of England in- this archipelago were still 
regarded with suspicion by the Spanish government, and 

' But the conquest was almost valueless, and a few years later the 
inhabitants had to be transported to Cagayan because of the scarcity 
of food. 



Filipino Creese and Sheath. 

in 1795 and 1796 a strong Spanish fleet, sent secretly by 
way of the coast of South America, was concentrated in 
the waters of the PhiUppines under the command of Ad- 
miral Alava. Its object was the defense of the Islands in 

case of a new 
war with Great 
Britain. News 
of the declara- 
tion of war be- 
tween these 
two countries 
reached Manila 
in March, 1797, 
but though for many months there was anxiety, Eng- 
land made no attempt at reoccupation. These events led, 
however, to the formation of a permanent naval squad- 
ron, with h e a d- 
quarters and naval 
station at Cavite/ 

The Climax of 
More Piracy. — 
The continued 
presence of the 
Moros in Min- 
doro, where they 
haimted the bays and rivers of both east and west coasts 

Moro Creeses. 

' Alava made a series of journeys through the different provinces 
of the Philippines, and on these trips he was accompanied by Friar 
Martinez de Zuniga, whose narrative of these expeditions forma a 
most interesting and valuable survey of the conditions of the Islands 
and the people at tlie beginning of the nineteenth century. "Esta- 
dismo de las Islas Filipinas, 6 mis viajes por este pais, por el Padre 
Fr. Joaquin Martinez de Zuniga. Publica esta obra por primera vez 
extensamente anotada W, E. Retana." 2 vols. Madrid, 1893. 



for months at a time, stealing out from this island for 
attack in every direction, was specially noted by Padre 
Zimiga, and indicated how feebly the Spaniards repulsed 
these pirates a hundred years ago. 

It was the last severe phase of Malay piracy, when 
even the strong merchant ships of England and America 
dreaded the straits of Borneo and 
passed with caution through the 
China Sea. Northern Borneo, the 
Sulu archipelago, and the southern 
coasts of Mindanao were the centers 
from which came these fierce sea- 
wolves, whose cruel exploits have 
left their many traditions in the 
American and British merchant na- 
vies, just as they periodically appear 
in the chronicles of the Philippines. 

Five hundred captives annually 
seem to have been the spoils taken 
by these Moros in the Philippines Is- 
lands, and as far south as Batavia 
and Macassar captive Filipinos were 
sold in the slave marts of the Ma- 
lays. The aged and infirm were in- 
humanly bartered to the savage 
tribes of Borneo, who offered them 
up in their ceremonial sacrifices. The measm-es of the 
Spanish government, though constant and expensive, were 
ineffective. Between 1778 and 1793, a million and a half 
of pesos were expended on the fleets and expeditions to 
drive back or punish the Moros, but at the end of the 
century a veritable climax of piracy was attained. 

Pirates swarmed continually about the coasts of Min- 

Moro Fish Spear. 



doro, Burias, and Masbate, and even frequented " the 
esteros of Manila Bay. Some sort of peace seems to have 
been established with Jolo and a friendly commerce was 
engaged in toward the end of the century, but the Moros 
of Mindanao and Borneo were increasing enemies. In 
1798 a fleet of twenty-five Moro bancas passed up the 
Pacific coast of Luzon and fell upon the isolated towns of 
Paler, Casiguran, and Palanan, destroying the pueblos 

and taking 450 cap- 
tives. The cura of 
Casiguran was ran- 
somed in Binangonan 
for the sum of twenty- 
five hundred pesos. 
For four years this 
pirate fleet had its 
rendezvous on Bu- 
rias, whence it raided 
the adjacent coasts 
and the Catanduanes. 
The Great Wars in 
America and Europe. 
— The English reoc- 
cupied Balanbangan in 1803, but held the island for 
only three years, when it was definitely abandoned. For 
some years, however, the coasts of the Philippines were 
threatened by English vessels,- and there was reflected 
here in the Far East the tremendous conflicts which were 
convulsing Europe at this time. The wars which changed 
Europe at the close of the eighteenth century, following 
the French Revolution, form one of the most important 
and interesting periods of European history, but it is 
also one of the most difficult periods to judge and de- 

Moro Musical Instrument. 


scribe. We will say of it here only so much as will be 
sufficient to show the effect upon Spain and so upon the 

The Revolution of the English Colonies in America. — 
In 1776 the thirteen English colonies on the Atlantic coast 
of North America declared their independence of Great 
Britain. In the unfair treatment of the British king and 
Parliament they had, they believed, just grounds for revo- 
lution. For nearly eight years a war continued by which 
England strove to reduce them again to obedience. But 
at the end of that time England, having successively lost 
two armies of invasion by defeat and capture, made peace 
with the American colonists and recognized their inde- 
pendence. In 1789 the Americans framed their present 
constitution and established the United States of America. 

The French Revolution. — Condition of the People 
in France. — In their struggle for independence the 
Americans had been aided by France, who hoped through 
this opportunity to cripple her great colonial rival, Eng- 
land. Between America and France there was close sym- 
pathy of political ideas and theories, although in their 
actual social conditions the two countries were as widely 
separated as could be. In America the society and gov- 
ernment were democratic. All classes were experienced 
in politics and government. They had behind them the 
priceless heritage of England's long struggle for free and 
representative government. There was ari abundance of 
the necessaries of life and nearly complete freedom of 

France, like nearly every other country of continental 
Em-ope, was suffering from the obsolete burden of feuda- 
lism. The ownership of the land was divided between 
the aristocracy and the church. The great bulk of the 


population were serfs bound to the estates, miserably op- 
pressed, and suffering from lack of food, and despoiled 
of almost every blessing which can brighten and dignify 
huinan life. The life of the court and of the nobility 
grew more luxurious, extravagant, and selfish as the 
economic conditions in France became worse. The king 
was nearly an absolute monarch. , His will was law and 
the earlier representative institutions, which in England 
had developed into the splendid system of parliamentary 
government, had in France fallen into decay. 

In the other countries of Europe — the German States, 
Austria, Italy, and Spain — the condition of the people 
was quite as bad, probably in some places even worse 
than it was in France. But it was in France that the 
revolt broke forth, and it was France which led Europe 
in a movement for a better and more democratic order. 
Frenchmen had fought in the armies of America; they 
had experienced the benefits of a freer society, and it is 
significant that in the same year (1789) that saw the 
founding of the American state the Revolution in France 
began. It started in a sincere and conservative attempt- 
to remedy the evils under which France was suffering, 
but the accumulation of injustice and misery was too 
great to be settled by slow and hesitating measures. The 
masses, ignorant, and bitter with their wrongs, broke 
from the control of statesman and reformer, threw them- 
selves upon the established state and church, both equally 
detestable to them, and tore them to pieces. Both king 
and queen died by beheading. The nobility were either 
murdered or expelled. The revolutionary government, if 
such it could be called, fell into the hands of wicked and 
terrible leaders, who maintained themselves by murder 
and terrorism. 


Effects of the Revolution. — These are the outward 
and terrible expressions of the Revolution which were 
seized upon by European statesmen and which have been 
most dwelt upon by historical writers. But, apart from 
the bloody acts of the years from 1793 to 1795, the Revo- 
lution modernized France and brought incalculable gains 
to the French people. By the seizure of the great estates 
and their division among the peasantry, the agricultural 
products of the country were doubled in a single year, 
and that terrible condition of semi-starvation which had 
prevailed for centm-ies was ended. 

The other monarchies of Europe regarded the events in 
France with horror and alarm. Monarchs felt their own 
thrones threatened, and a coalition of European mon- 
archies was formed to destroy the republic and to restore 
the French monarchy and old regime. France found her- 
self invaded by armies upon every frontier. It was then 
that the remarkable effects produced by the Revolution 
upon the people of France appeared. 

With a passionate enthusiasm which was irresistible, 
the people responded to the call for war; great armies 
were enlisted, which by an almost uninterrupted series of 
victories threw back the forces of the allies. Men rose 
from obscurity to the command of armies, and there was 
developed that famous group of commanders, the mar- 
shals of France. Out of this terrible period of warfare 
there arose, too, another, who was perhaps, if we except 
the Macedonian king, Alexander, the greatest man ever 
permitted to lead armies and to rule men — Bonaparte, 
later the emperor, Napoleon the First. 

The Jfew Repuhlic under Jfapoleon the First. — 
From 1795, when Bonaparte was given command of the 
invasion of Italy, until 1815, when he was finally defeated 


at Waterloo in Belgium, Europe experienced almost con- 
tinuous war. The genius of Napoleon reduced to the 
position of vassal states Italy, Switzerland, Holland, Bel- 
gium, Germany, and Austria. In all these countries the 
ancient thrones were humbled, feudalism was swept away, 
and the power of a corrupt church and aristocracy was 
broken. In spite of the humiliation of national pride, these 
great benefits to Europe of Napoleon's conquests can not 
be overestimated. Wherever Napoleon's power extended 
there followed the results of the Revolution — a better system 
of law, the introduction of the liberal " Code Napoleon," 
the liberation of the people from the crushing toils of 
medisevalism, and the founding of a better society. These 
are the debts which Europe owes to the French Revolution. 

The Decline of Spain. — LacJc of Progress- — In this 
advance and progress Spain did not share. The empire 
of Napoleon was never established in the Peninsula. In 
1811 the Spaniards, with the assistance of the English 
under the great general, Wellington, repulsed the armies 
of the French. This victory, so gratifying to national 
pride, was perhaps a real loss to Spain, for the reforms 
which prevailed in other parts of Europe were never car- 
ried out in Spain, and she remains even yet unliberated 
from aristocratic and clerical power. 

A hberal constitutional government was, however, set 
up in Spain in 1812 by the Cortes; but in 1814 King 
Ferdinand, aided by the Spanish aristocracy and clergy, 
was able to overthrow this representative government 
and with tyrannical power to cast reforms aside. Fifty 
thousand people were imprisoned for their liberal opin- 
ions, the Inquisition was restored, the Cortes abolished, 
and its acts nullified. The effect of these acts upon the 
Philippines will be noticed presently. 


Separation of the Philippines from Mexico. — The 
events of these years served to separate the Phihppines 
from their long dependency on Mexico. In 1813 the 
Cortes decreed the suppression of the subsidized Acapulco 
galleon. The Mexican trade had long been waning and 
voyages had become less profitable. The last of the gal- 
leons left Manila in 1811 and returned from Acapulco in 
1815, never again to attempt this classical voyage. 

The cessation of these voyages only briefly preceded the 
complete separation from America. From the first period 
of settlement, the Philippines had in many respects been 
a sub-dependency of New Spain. Mexico had until late 
afforded the only means of communication with the mother- 
country, the only land of foreign trade. Mexican officials 
frequently administered the government of the Islands, 
and Mexican Indians formed the larger part of the small 
standing array of the Philippines, including the "Regi- 
ment of the King." As we have seen, a large subsidy, 
the situado, was annually drawn from the Mexican 
treasury to support the deficient revenues of the Philip- 

JRebellion of the South American Countries. — But 
the grievances of the Spanish American colonists were 
very great and very real. The revolution which had suc- 
cessively stirred North America and Europe now passed 
back again to the Spanish countries of the New World, 
and between 1810 and 1825 they fought themselves free 
of Spain. The last of the colonies from which the Span- 
iards were forced to retire was Peru. Mexico achieved 
her separation in 1820. Spain lost every possession upon 
the mainland of both Americas, and the only vestiges of 
her once vast American empire were the rich islands of 
the Greater Antilles — Cuba and Porto Rico. 


Limited Trade with the Philippines. — The Philip- 
pines were now forced to "communicate by ship directly 
with Spain. The route for the next fifty years lay by 
sailing-vessels around the Cape of Good Hope. It occu- 
pied from four to six months, but this route had now be- 
come practically a neutral passage, its winds and currents 
were well understood, and it was annually followed by 
great numbers of vessels of Europe, England, and the 
United States. 

Trade was still limited to the ships of the Royal Philip- 
pine Company, and this shipping monopoly lasted until 
1835, when a new era in the commercial and industrial 
life of the Philippines opened. An Enghsh commercial 
house was established in Manila as early as 1809. 

Volcanic Eruptions. — The terrible eruptions ^of Mount 
Taal, the last of which occurred in 1754, were followed in 
the next century by the destructive activity of Mount 
Mayon. In 1814 an indescribable eruption of ashes and 
lava occurred, and the rich hemp towns around the base 
of this mountain were destroyed. Father Francisco Ara- 
goneses, cura of Cagsaua, an eye-witness,, states that 
twelve thousand people perished; in the church of Budiao 
alone two hundred lay dead.' 

Rebellions in the Philippines. — The Liberal Spanish 
Cortes. — Two revolts in the Philippines that occurred at 
this period are of much importance and show the effect 
in the Philippines of the political changes in Spain. In 
1810 the hberal Spanish Cortes had declared that "the 
kingdoms and provinces of America and Asia are, and 
ought to have been always, reputed an integral part of 
the Spanish monarchy, and for that same, their natives 

' Jagor: Viajes por Filipinos, p. 81. Translated from the Ger- 
man. Madrid, 1895. 


and free inhabi-tants are equal in rights and privileges to 
those of the Peninsula." 

This important declaration, which if carried out would 
have completely revolutionized Spain's colonial policy, 
was published in the Philippines, and with that remark- 
able and interesting facility by which such news is spread, 
even among the least educated classes of Filipinos, this 
proclamation had been widely disseminated and discussed 
throughout the Islands. It was welcomed by the Filipino 
with great satisfaction, because he believed it exempted 
him from the enforced labor of the -polos and servicios. 
These were the unremunerated tasks required of Filipinos 
for the construction of public works, bridges, roads, 
churches, and convents. 

Effect of the Repeal of the Declaration of the 
Cortes. — King Ferdinand VII. in May, 1814, on his 
return to power, as we have seen, published the famous 
decree abolishing constitutional government in Spain and 
annulling all the acts of the Cortes, including those which 
aimed to liberalize the government of the colonies. These 
decrees, when published in the Philippines, appeared to 
the Filipinos to return them to slavery, and in many 
places their disaffection turned to rebellion. In Ilocos 
twelve hundred men banded together, sacked convents 
and churches, and destroyed the books and documents of 
the municipal archives. Their fury seems to have been 
particularly directed against the petty tyrants of their 
own race, the caciques or principales. 

The result of Spanish civilization in the Philippines had 
been to educate, and, to a certain degree, enrich a small 
class of Filipinos, usually known as principales or the 
gente ilustrada. It is this class which has absorbed the 
direction of mimicipal and local affairs, and which almost 


alone of the Filipino population has shared in those 
benefits and opportunities which civilized life should 

The vast majority of the population have, unfortunately, 
fallen or remained in a dependent and almost semi-servile 
position beneath the principales. In Ilocos this subordi- 
nate class, or dependientes, is known as kailian, and it was 
these kailian who now fell upon their more wealthy mas- 
ters, burning their houses and destroying their property, 
and in some instances killing them. The assignment of 
compulsory labor had been left to the principales in their 
positions as gobernadorcillos and cabezas de barangay, 
and these officials had unquestionably abused their power 
and had drawn d'own upon themselves the vengeance of 
the kailian.' 

This revolt, it will be noticed, was primarily directed 
neither against friars nor Spanish authorities, but against 
the unfortunate social order which the rule of Spain main- 

A Revolt Lead by Spaniards. — A plot, with far 
more serious motives, took place in 1823. The official 
positions in the regiments and provinces had previously 
been held almost entirely by Spaniards born in America 
or the Philippines. The government now attempted to 
fill these positions with Spaniards from Manila. The offi- 
cials, deprived of their positions, incited the native troops 
which they had commanded, into a revolt, which began 
in the walled city in Manila. About eight hundred sol- 
diers followed them, and they gained possession of the 
Cuartel of the King, of the Royal Palace, and of the Ca- 
bildo, but they failed to seize the fortress of Santiago. 

' See Estado de las Islas Filipinas en 1S47, by D. Sinibaldo de Mas. 


It was not properly a revolt of Filipinos, as the people 
were not involved and did not rise, but it had its influence 
in inciting later insurrection. 

Insurrection on Bohol. — Since the insurrection on 
Bohol in 1744, when the natives had killed the Jesuit 
missionaries, a large part of the island had been practi- 
cally independent under the leader Dog6hoy. After the 
expulsion of the Jesuits, Recollects were placed in special 
charge of those towns along the seacoast, which had re- 
mained loyal to Spain. An effort was made to secure the 
submission of the rebels by the proclamation of a pardon, 
but the power of the revolt grew rather than declined, 
until in 1827 it was determined to reduce the rebellion 
by force. An expedition of thirty-two hundred men was 
formed in Cebu, and in April, 1828, the campaign took 
place, which resulted in the defeat of the rebels and their 
settlement in the Christian towns. 

The New Provinces of Benguet and Abra. — It is proper 
to notice also the slow advances of Spanish authority, 
which began to be made about this time among the heathen 
tribes of northern Luzon. These fierce and powerful tribes 
occupy the entire range of the Cordillera Central. Mis- 
sionary effort in the latter half of the eighteenth century 
had succeeded in partly Christianizing the tribes along the 
river Magat in Neuva Vizcaya, but the fierce, head-hunting 
hillmen remained unsubdued and imchristianized. 

Between 1823 and 1829 the mission of Pidigan-, tmder an 
Augustinian friar. Christianized some thousands of the 
Tinguianes of the river Abra. In 1829 an expedition of 
about sixty soldiers, under Don Guillermo Galvey, pene- 
trated into the cool, elevated plateau of Benguet. The 
diary of the leader recounts the difficult march up the 
river Cagaling from Aringay and their delight upon emerg- 


ing from the jungle and cogon upon the grassy, pine- 
timbered slopes of the plateau. 

They saw little cultivated valleys and small culsters of 
houses and splendid herds of cattle, carabaos, and horses, 
which to this day have continued to enrich the people of 
these mountains. At times they were surrounded by the 
yelling bands of Igorrotes, and several times they had to 
repulse attacks, but they nevertheless succeeded in reach- 
ing the beautiful circular depression now known as the 
valley of La Trinidad. 

The Spaniards saw with enthusiasm the carefully sepa- 
rated and walled fields, growing camotes, taro, and sugar- 
cane. The village of about five hundred houses was 
partly burned by the Spaniards, as the Igorrotes con- 
tinued hostile. The expedition returned to the coast, 
having suffered only a few wounds. The commandancia 
of Benguet was not created until 1846, in which year also 
Abra was organized as a province. 



Progress during the Last Half-Century of Spanish Rule.— 

We have now come to the last half-century and to the 
last phase of Spanish rule. In many respects this period 
was one of economic and social progress, and contained 
more of promise than any other in the history of the 
Islands. During this last half-century the Spanish rulers 
had numerous plans for the development and better ad- 
ministration of the Philippines, and, in spite of a some- 
what wavering policy and the continual sore of official 
peculation, this was a period of wonderful advancement. 
Revolution and separation from Spain came at last, as 
revolutions usually do, not because there was no effort 
nof movement for reform, but because progress was so 
discouragingly slow and so irritatingly blocked by estab- 
lished interests that desired no change. 

Effect of Opening the Port of Manila to Foreign Trade. — ■ 
Increase in oigriculture. — The opening of the port of 
Manila to foreign trade, in 1837, was followed by a period 
of rising industry and prosperity. Up to this time the 
archipelago had not been a producing and exporting coun- 
try, but the freeing of trade led to the raising of great 
harvests for foreign export, which have made world-wide 
the fame of certain Philippine productions. Chief among 
these are of course Manila hemp and tobacco. These 
were followed by sugar and coffee culture, the latter plant 
enriching the province of Batangas, while the planting of 



new cocoanut groves yearly made of greater importance 
the yield of that excellent product, copra. These rich 
merchandises had entered very little into commerce durmg; 
the early decades of the century. 

Increase in Exports. — In 1810 the entire imports of 
the Philippines amounted in value to 5,329,000 dollars, 
but more than half of this consisted of silver sent from 
Mexico. From Europe and the United States trade 
amounted to only 175,000 dollars. The exports in the 
same year amounted to 4,795,000 dollars, but a million 
and a half of this was Mexican silver exported on to 
China, and the whole amount of exports to Europe and 
the United States was only 250,000 dollars. 

In 1831 the exportation of hemp amounted to only 346 
tons. But the effect upon production of opening Manila 
to foreign trade is, seen in the export six years later of 
2,585 tons. By 1858 the exportation of hemp had risen 
to 412,000 piculs, or 27,500 tons. Of this amoimt, nearly 
two thirds, or 298,000 piculs, went to the United States. 
At this time the North Atlantic seaboard of America 
was the center of a most active ship-building and ship- 
carrying trade. The American flag was conspicuous among 
the vessels that frequented these Eastern ports, and " Ma- 
nila hemp" was largely sought after by American sea- 
men to supply the shipyards at home. Of sugar, the 
export in 1858 amounted to 557,000 piculs, of which more 
than half went to Great Britain. 

After 1814 general permission had been given to for- 
eigners to establish trading-houses in Manila, and by 1858 
there were fifteen such establishments, of which seven 
were English and three American.^ 

' Bowring: A Visit to the Philippine Islands, p. 387. 


Other Ports Opened to Foreign Commerce. — In 1855 
three other ports were opened to foreign commerce — 
^ Sual in Pangasinan on the Gulf of Lingayan, Iloilo, and 
Zamboanga. In 1863, Cebu likewise was made an open 
port. The exports of Sual consisted only of rice, and in 
spite of its exceptional harbor this port never flourished, 
and is to-day no more than an unfrequented village. 

Iloilo exported leaf tobacco, sugar, sapan or dyewood (an 
industry long ago ruined), hemp, and hides. Zamboanga 
through the Chinese had a small trade with Jolo and the 
Moro Islands, and exported the produce of these seas — 
sea-slug (tripang), shark fins, mother-of-pearl, tortoise 
shell, etc. For some years the customs laws in these 
ports were trying and vexatious, and prevented full ad- 
vantage being taken of the privileges of export; but in 
1869 this service was, by royal decree, greatly liberalized 
and improved. Since that date the Philippines have 
steadily continued to grow in importance in the com- 
mercial world. 

The Form of Government under the Spanish. — General 
Improvertvents. — This is perhaps a convenient place to 
examine for the last time the political system which the 
Spaniards maintained in the country. In 1850 there were 
thirty-four provinces and two politico-military command- 
ancias. In these provinces the Spanish administration 
was still vested solely in the alcalde mayor, who until 
after 1886 was both governor or executive officer and 
the judge or court for the trial of provincial cases and 

Many of the old abuses which had characterized the 
government of the alcaldes had been at least partially 
remedied. After 1844 they had no longer the much- 
abused monopoly privilege of trade, nor had they as free 


a hand in controlling the labor of the uihabitants; but 
opportunities for illegal enrichment existed in the ad- 
ministration of the treasury and tax system, and these 
opportunities were not slighted. Up to the very end 
of Spanish rule the officials, high and low, are accused of 
stealing public money. 

The Pueblo. — The unit of administration was the 
pueblo, ■ or township, which ordinarily embraced many 
square miles of country and contained numerous villages, 
or "barrios." The center of the town was naturally the 
site where for centuries had stood the great church and 
the convent of the missionary friars. These locations had 
always been admirably chosen, and about them grew up 
the market and trading-shops of Chinese and the fine and 
durable homes of the more prosperous Filipinos and mes- 

About 1860 the government began to concern itself 
with the construction of public buildings and improve- 
ments, and the result is seen in many pueblos in the 
finely laid-out plazas and well-built municipal edifices 
grouped about the square — the "tribunal," or town 
house, the jail, and the small but significant schoolhouses. 
The government of the town was vested in a "gobema- 
dorcillo " 'and a council, each of the " eonsejales" usually 
representing a hamlet or barrio. 

But the Spanish friar, who in nearly every pueblo was 
the parish curate, continued to be the paternal guardian 
and administrator of the pueblo. In general, no matter 
was too minute for his dictation. Neither gobernador- 
cillo nor councillors dared act in opposition to his wishes, 
and the alcalde of the province was careful to keep on 
friendly terms and leave town affairs largely to his dicta- 
tion. The friar was the local inspector of public instruc- 


tion and ever vigilant to detect and destroy radical ideas. 
To the humble Filipino, the friar was the visible and 
only representative of Spanish authority. 

The Revolt of 1841. — Bcpression of the People, by 
the Friars. — Unquestionably in the past, the work of 
the friars had been of very great value ; but men as well 
as institutions may lose their usefulness, as conditions 
change, and the time was now approaching when the 
autocratic and paternal regime of the friars no longer 
satisfied the Filipinos. Their zeal was no longer disinter- 
ested, and their work had become materialized by the 
possession of the vast estates upon which their spiritual 
charges lived and labored as tenants or dependents. The 
policy of the religious orders had, in fact, become one of 
repression, and as the aspirations of the Filipinos in- 
creased, the friars, filled with doubt and fear, tried to 
draw still tighter the bonds of their own authority, and 
viewed with growing distrust the rising ambition of the 

ApoUnario de la Cruz. — The unfortunate revolution 
of 1841 shows the wayward and misdirected enthusiasm 
of the Filipino; and the unwisdom of the friars. Apoli- 
nario de la Cruz, a young Filipino, a native of Lukban, 
Tayabas, came up to Manila filled with the ambition to 
lead a monastic life, and engaged in theological studies. 
By his attendance upon lectures and sermons and by imi- 
tation of the friar preachers of Manila, Apolinario became, 
himself, quite an orator, and, as subsequent events showed, 
was able to arouse great numbers of his own people by 
his appeals. 

It was his ambition to enter one of the regular mon- 
astic orders, but this religious privilege was never granted 
to Filipinos, and he was refused. He then entered a 


brotherhood known as the Cofradia, or Brotherhood of 
San Juan de Dios, composed entirely of Fihpinos. After 
some years in this brotherhood, he returned in 1840 to 
Tayabas and founded the Cofradia de San Jose, his aim 
being to form a special cult in honor of Saint Joseph and 
the Virgin. For this he requested authorization from 
Manila. It was here that the lack of foresight of the 
friars appeared. 

The Opposition of the Friars. — Instead of sympa- 
thizing with these religious aspirations, in which, up to 
this point, there seems to have been nothing heretical, 
they viewed the rise of a Filipino religious leader with 
alarm. Their policy never permitted to the Filipino any 
position that was not wholly subordinate. They believed 
that the permanence of Spanish power in these islands lay 
in suppressing any latent ability for leadership in the Fili- 
pino himself. Their influence, consequently, was thrown 
against Apolinario, and the granting of the authority for 
his work. They secured not only a condemnation of his 
plan, but an order for the arrest and imprisonment of all 
who should attend upon his preaching. 

Apolinario Forced to Rebel. — Apolinario thereupon 
took refuge in independent action. His movement had 
already become a strong one, and his followers numbered 
several thousand people of Laguna, Tayabas, and Batangas. 
The governor of Tayabas province, Don Joaquin Ortega, 
organized an expedition to destroy the schism. Accom- 
panied by two Franciscan friars, he attacked Apolinario 
in the month of October, 1840, and was defeated and 
killed. One account says that Apolinario was assisted by 
a band of Negritos, whose bowmanship was destructive. 
There are still a very few of these little blacks in the 
woods in the vicinity of Lukban. 


Apolinario was now in the position of an open rebel, 
and he fortified himself in the vicinity of Alitao, where 
he built a fort and chapel. 

His religious movement became distinctly independent 
and heretical. A church was formed, of which he was 
first elected archbishop and then supreme pontiff. He 
was also charged with having assumed the title of " King 
of the Tagdlog." 

Finally a force under the new alcalde, Vital, and General 
Huet early in November attacked Apolinario's stronghold 
and after a fierce struggle defeated the revolutionists. 
About a thousand Filipinos perished in the final battle. 
Apolinario was captm-ed and executed. He was then 
twenty-seven years of age. 

Organization of Municipal Governments. — In 1844 
an able and liberal governor. General Claveria, arrived, and 
remained until the end of the year 1849. A better or- 
ganization of the provincial governments, which we have 
seen, followed Claveria's entrance into office, and in Octo- 
ber, 1847, came the important decree, organizing the mu- 
nicipalities in the form which we have already described, 
and which remained without substantial modification to 
the end of Spanish rule, and which has to a considerable 
extent been followed in the Municipal Code framed by the 
American government. 

Subjection of the Igorrote Tribes. — With Claveria be- 
gan a decisive policy of conquest among the Igorrote 
tribes of northern Luzon, and by the end of Spanish rule 
these mountains were dotted with cuartels and missions 
for the control of these unruly tribes. The province 
of Nueva Vizcaya has been particularly subject to the 
raids of these head-hunting peoples. Year after year the 
Christian towns of the plains had yielded a distressing 


sacrifice of life to satisfy the savage ceremonials of the 

In 1847, Claveria nominated as governor of Nueva 
Vizcaya, Don Mariano Ozcariz, whose severe and telling 
conquests for the first time checked these Igorrote out- 
rages and made possible the development of the great 
valleys of northern Luzon. 

Spanish Settlements on Mindanao. — Zamboanga. — 
With Claveria's governorship we enter also upon the last 
phase of Mol-o piracy. In spite of innumerable expedi- 
tions, Spain's occupation of South Mindanao and the Sulu 
archipelago was limited to the presidio of Zamboanga. She 
had occupied this strategic point continuously since the 
reestablishment of Spanish power in 1763. The great stone 
fort, which still stands, had proved impregnable to Moro 
attack, and had long been tmmolested. 

Distributed for a distance of some miles over the rich 
lands at this end of the Zamboanga peninsula was a Chris- 
tian population, which had grown up largely from the de- 
scendants of rescued captives of the Moros. Coming 
originally from all parts of the Bisayas, Calamianes, and 
Luzon, this mixed population has grown to have a some- 
what different character from that of any other part of 
Ihe Islands. A corrupt Spanish dialect, known as the 
"Chabucano," has become the common speech, the only 
instance in the Philippines where the native dialect has 
been supplanted. This population, loyal and devotedly 
Catholic, never failed to sustain the defense of this iso- 

' The reports of the Dominican missionaries of Nueva Vizcaya and 
Isabela show the extent and persistence of these raids. (See the files 
of the missionary pubUcation, El Correo Sino-Annamita, and also the 
work by Padre Buenaventura Campa, Los Maybyaos y la Raza Ifugao, 
Madrid, 1895. 


lated Spanish outpost, and contributed brave volunteers 
to every expedition against the Moro islands. 

Activity of Other Jfdtions. — But Spain's maintenance 
of Zamboanga was insufficient to sustain her claims of 
sovereignty over the Sulu and Tawi-Tawi groups. Both 
the Dutch and English planned various moves for their 
occupation and acquisition, and in 1844 a French fleet 
entered the archipelago and concluded a treaty with the 
sultan of Sulu for the cession of the island of Basilan for 
the sum of one million dollars. Writings of the French 
minister and historian, M. Guizot, show that France hoped, 
by the acquisition of this island, to obtain a needed naval 
base in the East and found a great commercial port within 
the sphere of Chinese trade.^ 

Conquest of the Gulf of Davao. — But this step 
roused the Spaniards to activity and the occupation of 
the island. A naval vessel subdued* the towns along 
the north coast, and then proceeding to the mouth of the 
Rio Grande, secured from the sultan of Maguindanao the 
cession of the great Gulf of Davao. Spain took no imme- 
diate steps to occupy this gulf, but in 1847 a Spaniard, 
Don Jose Oyanguran, proposed to the governor, Claveria, 
to conquer the region at his own expense, if he could be 
furnished with artillery and munitions and granted a ten 
years' government of Davao, with the exclusive privilege 
of trade. 

His offer was accepted by the governor and the Audi- 
encia, and Oyanguran organized a company to secure 
funds for the undertaking. In two years' time he had 
subdued the coast regions of this gulf, expelled the pirates 
who harbored there, and founded the settlement of Nueva 

' Montero y Vidal: Historia de Filipinas, vol. III., p. 99. 


Vergara. He seems to have been making progress toward 
the conquest and commercial exploitation of this region, 
when jealous attacks in Manila induced Governor Urbis- 
tondo to cancel his privilege and to relieve him by an 
officer of the government. 

In subsequent years the Jesuits had a few mission 
stations here and made a few converts among the Bago- 
bos; but the region is still an unsubdued and unutilized 
country, whose inhabitants are mainly pagan tribes, and 
whose rich agricultural possibilities lie undeveloped and 

The Samal Pirates. — The Sulu. — The piratical in- 
habitants of the Sulu archipelago are made of two dis- 
tinct Malayan peoples — the Sulu (or Sulug), and the 
Samal, who are known throughout Malaysia as the " Bajau" 
or "Orang laut" (Men of the Sea). The former appear to 
be the older inhabitants. They occupy the rich and popu- 
lous island of Jolo and some islands of the Siassi group, 
immediately south. 

The Samal. — The Samal, or Bajau, are stated to 
have come originally from Johore. Many of them live 
almost exclusively in their boats, passing their lives from 
birth to death upon the sea. They are found throughout 
most parts of Malaysia, the position of their little fleets 
changing with the shifting of the monsoons. In the Sulu 
archipelago and a few points in South Mindanao, many of 
these Samal have shifted their homes from their boats to 
the shore. Their villages are built on piles over the sea, 
and on many of the low coral reefs south of Siassi and 
east of Tawi-Tawi theje are great towns or settlements 
which have apparently been in existence a long while. 

Fifty years ago the Samal were very numerous in the 
many islands between Jolo and Basilan, and this group is 


still known as the Islas Samales. Like the Sulu and other 
Malays, the Samal are Mohammedans, and scarcely less 
persistent pirates than their fellow-Malays. With the de- 
cline of piratical power among the Sulu of Jolo, the focus 
of piracy shifted to these settlements of the Samal, and in 
the time of Claveria the worst centers were the islands of 
Balanguingui and Tonquil, lying just north of the island 
of Jolo. From here pirate and slaving raids upon the 
Bisayan Islands continued to be made, and nearly every 
year towns were sacked and burned and several hundred 
unfortunate captives carried away. The captives were 
destined for slavery, and regular marts existed for this 
traffic at Jolo and on the Bay of Sandakan in Borneo. 

Arrival of Steam, Warships. — In 1848 the Philip- 
pines secured the first steam war vessels. These were the 
"Magellanes," the "Elcano," and the "Reina de Castilla." 
They were destined to revolutionize Moro relations. 

The Destruction of the Samal Forts. — Hitherto it 
had been possible for the great Moro war praos, manned 
by many oarsmen, to drop their masts on the approach 
of an armed sailing-vessel, and, turning toward the "eye 
of the wind," where no sailing-ship could pursue, row 
calmly away from danger. Steam alone was effective in 
combating these sea-wolves. Claveria took these newly 
arrived ships, and with a strong force of infantry, which 
was increased by Zamboangueno volunteers, he entered 
the Samal group in February, 1848, and landed on the 
island of Balanguingui. 

There were four fortresses situated in the mangrove 
marshes of the island. These, in spite of a desperate 
resistance, were carried by the infantry and Zamboangue- 
fios and the pirates scattered. The conduct of the cam- 
paign appears to have been admirable and the fighting 


heroic. The Moros were completely overwhelmed; 450 
dead were burned or interred; 124 pieces of artillery — 
for the most part, the small brass cannon called "lan- 
tacas" — were captured, and 150 Moro boats were de- 
stroyed. The Spaniards cut down the cocoanut groves, 
and' with spoil that included such rich pirate loot as silks, 
silver vases, ornaments, and weapons of war, and with 
over two hundred prisoners and three hundred rescued 
captives, returned to Zamboanga. This was the most sig- 
nal victory ever won by Europeans in conflict with Malay 
piracy. The effectiveness of this campaign is shown by 
the fact that while in the preceding year 450 Filipinos had 
suffered capture at the hands of Moro pirates, in 1848 and 
the succeeding year there was scarcely a depredation. 
But in 1850 a pirate squadron from Tonquil, an island 
adjacent to Balanguingui, fell upon Samar and Camaguin. 
Fortunately, Governor Urbistondo, who had succeeded 
Claveria, vigorously continued the policy of his predeces- 
sor, and an expedition was promptly dispatched which 
destroyed the settlements and strongholds on Tonquil. 

Destruction of the Moro Forts at Jolo. — A year 
later war broke out again with Jolo, and after a varied 
interchange of negotiations and hostilities, the Spaniards 
stormed and took the town in February, 1851. The ques- 
tion of permanent occupation of this important site was 
debated by a council of war, but their forces appearing 
unequal to the task, the forts of the Moros were destroyed, 
and the expedition returned. Jolo is described at this 
time as a very strongly guarded situation. Five forts and 
a double line of trenches faced the shore. The Moro town 
is said to have contained about seven thousand souls, 
and there was a barrio of Chinese traders, who numbered 
about five hundred. 


Treaty with the Sultan of Jolo. — A. few months 
later the governor of Zamboanga concluded a treaty with 
the sultan of Jolo by which the archipelago was to be con- 
sidered an incorporated part of the Spanish possessions. 
The sultan bound himself to make no further treaties 
with or cessions to foreign powers, to suppress piracy, 
and to fly the Spanish flag. The Mores were guaranteed 
the practice of their religion, the succession of the sultan 
and his descendants in the established order, boats of 
Jolo were to enjoy the same trading privileges in Spanish 
ports as other Filipino vessels, and the sultan retained the 
right to all customs duties on foreign trading-vessels. 
Finally, " in compensation for the damages of war, " the 
sultan was to be paid an annual subsidy of 1,500 pesos 
and 600 pesos each to three datos and 360 pesos to a 
sherif . ' 

The End of Malay Piracy. — In these very years that 
Malay piracy was receiving such severe blows from the 
recuperating power and activity of the Spanish govern- 
ment on the north, it was crushed also from the south by 
the merciless warfare of a great Englishman, the Raja 
Charles Brooke of Sarawak. The sources of pirate depre- 
dation were Maguindanao, the Sulu archipelago, and the 
north and west coasts of the great island of Borneo. We 
have seen how these fleets, century after century, swept 
northward and wasted with fire and murder the fair islands 
of the Philippines. 

But this archipelago was not alone in suffering these 
ravages. The peaceful trading inhabitants of the great 
island groups to the south were persistently visited and 
despoiled. Moreover, as the Chinese trade by the Cape of 

' Montero y Vidal: Historia de Filipinas, vol. III., p. 209. The 
document is given in Appendix 4 of the same volume. 


Good Hope route became established in the first half of 
the nineteenth century, these pirates became a great 
menace to European shipping. They swarmed the China 
Sea, and luckless indeed was the ship carried too far east- 
ward on its course. Every American schoolboy is familiar 
with the stories of fierce hand-to-hand struggles with 
Malay pirates, which have come down from those years 
when the American flag was seen ever3rwhere in the ports 
of the Far East. 

About 1839 a young English officer,' who had been in 
the Indian service, Charles Brooke, having armed and 
equipped a yacht of about 140 tons, set sail for the coast 
of Borneo, with the avowed intent of destroying Malay 
piracy and founding an independent state. In aU the 
romantic stories of the East there is no career of greater 
during than that of this man. In 1841, having engaged 
in several bloody exploits, Brooke forced from the sultan 
of Borneo the cession of Sarawak, with the government 
vested in himself as an independent raja. 

Brooke now devoted himself with merciless severity to 
the destruction of the pirates in the deep bays and swampy 
rivers, whence they had so long made their excursions. 
Later he was assisted by the presence of the English man- 
of-war " Dido," and in 1847 the sultan of Brunei ceded to 
Great Britain the island of Labuan. In 1849, Brooke 
visited Zamboanga in the English man-of-war "Moeander,' 
and concluded a treaty with the sultan of Sulu, which 
greatly alarmed the Spaniards. 

Brooke's private correspondence shows that he was am- 
bitious and hopeful of acquiring for England parts of the 
Dutch possessions in the south and the Spanish Philip- 

See Rajah Brooke, by Sir Spencer St. John, London, 1899. 


pines in the north; but his plans were never followed up 
by England, although in 1887 North Borneo was ceded to 
an English company, and all the northern and eastern 
portions of this great island are now under English pro- 

Liberal Ideas among the Filipinos. — The release from 
Moro piracy, the opening of foreign commerce, and the 
development of agricultural production were rapidly bring- 
ing about a great change in the aspirations of the Filipino 
people themselves. Nearly up to the middle of the nine- 
teenth century the Filipinos had felt the full effect of 
isolation from the life and thought of the modern world. 
But the revolutionary changes .in Europe and the struggles 
for constitutional government in Spain had their influ- 
ence, even in these far-away Spanish possessions. Span- 
iards of liberal ideas, some of them in official positions, 
found their way to the Islands, and an agitation began, 
originating among Spaniards themselves, against the pater- 
nal powers of the friars. 

Influence of the Press. — The growth of periodic liter- 
ature accelerated this liberalizing movement. The press, 
though suffering a severe censorship, has played a large 
part in shaping recent thought in these islands and in 
communicating to the Filipino people those ideas and 
purposes which ever inspire and elevate men.^ The first 
newspaper to make its appearance in the Philippines was 
in 1822 — "El Philantropo "; but journalism assumed no 

' Keppel: Expedition to Borneo of H. M. S. Dido for the Suppres- 
sion of Piracy, with extracts from the Journal of James Brooke, Esq. 
2 vols. London, 1846. Keppel: A Visit to the Indian Archipelago in 
H. M. S. M (Bandar. 2 vols. London, 1853. 

^ Spain established a permanent commission of censorship in 1856. 
It was composed of eight persons, one half nominated by the gov- 
ernor and one half by the archbishop. 


real importance until the forties, when there were founded 
"Semanario Filipino" (1843), and almost immediately 
after several others — "El Amigo de Pais" (1845), "La 
Estrella" (1846), and "La Esperanza" (1847), the first 
daily. These were followed by "Diario de Manila" 
(1848); in 1858 "El Comercio" appeared, the oldest of 
the papers still in existence/ 

Papers conducted by Filipinos and in the Filipino 
tongues are of more recent origin, but these early Spanish 
periodicals had a real effect upon the Filipinos themselves, 
training up a class familiar with the conduct of journal- 
ism and preparing a way for the very influential work of 
the Filipino press in recent years. 

Establishment of an Educational System. — Return of 
the Jesuits. — But more important than all other influ- 
ences was the opening of education to Filipinos. In 1852 
a royal decree authorized the Jesuits to return to the 
Philippines. The conditions under which they came back 
were that they should devote themselves solely to missions 
in the unoccupied fields of Mindanao, and to the higher 
education of the Filipinos. 

The Public Schools.— In 1860, O'Donnell, the Span- 
ish minister of war and colonies (Ultramar), founded the 
system of public primary instruction. A primary school 
for boys and one for girls was to be established in each 
pueblo of the Islands. In these schools, instruction was 
to be given in the Spanish language. A superior commis- 
sion of education was formed, which consisted of the gov- 
ernor, the archbishop, and seven other members added by 
the governor himself. 

The system was not secular, for it primarily was de- 

' El Periodismo Filipino, por W. E. Retana. Madrid, 1895. 



voted to the teaching of reUgious doctrine. The Spanish 
friar, the pueblo curate, was the local inspector of schools 
and practically directed their conduct. It was not wholly 
a free system, because tuition was required of all but the 
poorest children; nor was it an adequate system, because, 
even when most complete, it reached only a small pro- 
portion of the children of a parish, and these very largely 

Cathedral, Manila. 

were of the well-to-do families. And yet this system, for 
what it accomplished, is deserving of great credit. 

Besides the church, the convent, and the tribunal, 
nearly every town in the Phihppines, toward the close of 
Spanish rule, had also, in the public plaza, its public 
school buildings for boys and for girls. In these towns a 
number of Filipinos were taught to converse in the Span- 
ish language and at least the rudiments of Spanish edu- 


cation. But this system did not give opportiuiity for 
education to the little child of the humble fisherman and 
the husbandman. 

The Manila Jformal School. — To prepare Filipino 
teachers to do this work of primary instruction, a decree of 
1863 established the Manila Normal School. In charge of 
the Jesuits, this school was inaugurated in January, 1865. 
And about the same date the government decreed the 
foundation of the Jesuit "Ateneo Municipal" for higher 
instruction in the classics and sciences that should conduct 
the student to the degree of bachelor of arts. The influ- 
ence of these institutions upon the development of the 
Filipino has been remarkable. In one or the other of 
them have been trained nearly all of those young men 
who in recent years have stirred the Filipino people to 
wide ambitions and demands. At the same time the ex- 
cellent Jesuit observatory, which has done such important 
work in meteorology, was established in charge of Padre 

Increase in Spanish Population. — The opening of the 
Suez Canal in 1869 brought immense changes to the Is- 
lands. Previous to this date Spanish residents had been 
few. Almost the only class deeply interested in the 
Islands and permanently established here had been the 
friars. But with communication by steamer in thirty 
days from Barcelona to Manila, a new interest was felt 
by Spaniards in the Philippines, though unfortunately 
this interest was greatest among the politicians. Some of 
the projects planned and decreed can only be regarded 
as visionary and beyond the point of serviceability, and 
others, more unfortunately still, had for their pm-pose the 
creation of offices and emoluments for Peninsula politi- 
cians; but they all contributed to bring to an end the 


paternal government under which there was no prospect 
of further enlightenment or progress for the Filipino. 

Increase in the Number of Wealthy, Educated Filipinos. — 
The Filipino had now become embarked upon a new cur- 
rent of intellectual experience — a course of enlighten- 
ment which has been so full of unexpected development, 
and which has already carried him so far from his ancestor 
of one hundred years ago, that we can not say what ad- 
vance another generation or two may bring. Throughout 
all the towns of the Islands a class was rapidly growing 
up to which the new industries had brought wealth. Their 
means enabled them to build spacious and splendid homes 
of the fine, hard woods of the Philippines, and to surround 
themselves with such luxuries as the life of the Islands 
permitted. This class was rapidly gaining education. It 
acquired a knowledge of the Spanish language, and easily 
assumed that graceful courtesy which distinguishes the 

The only misfortuncj as regards this class, was that it 
was -very small. It could embrace but a few families in 
each populous town. Some of these had Chinese and 
Spanish blood in their veins, but other notable families 
were pure Filipinos. 

Attitude of the Spanish and the Friars toward Filipino 
Education. — The great mistake committed by the Span- 
iard was that he rarely welcomed the further progress of 
the native population, and the center of this opposition 
to the general enlightenment of the race was the friars. 
Thus those who had been the early protectors and edu- 
cators, little by little, because of their extreme conserva- 
tism and their fear of loosening the ties that bound the 
Filipino to the church and to Spain, changed into oppo- 
nents of his progress and enemies of his enlightenment; 


but the education which the church itself had given to 
the Filipino, and which had been fostered by the state 
and especially in recent times by the Jesuits, had made 
the Filipino passionately ambitious for more enlighten- 
ment and freedom. , 

The Rule of Governor Torre. — Liberal Reforms. — In 
1868, Queen Isabella II. of Spain was deposed, and a little 
later a revolutionary government, the " Republic of Spain," 
was founded. It was the brief triumph of that reforming 
and liberal spirit which for so many years had been strug- 
gling to free Spain from the burdens of aristocracy and 

The natural consequence was the sending of a liberal 
governor to the Philippines and the publication of liberal 
principles and reforms. This governor was General de 
la Torre. He was a brave and experienced soldier and 
a thorough democrat at heart. He dispensed with the 
formality and petty pomp with which the governors of 
Manila had surrounded themselves; he dismissed the 
escort of halberdiers, with their mediteval uniforms and 
weapons, which had surrounded the governor-generals 
since 1581, and rode out in civilian's clothes and without 
ostentation. His efforts were directed to encouraging 
the Filipinos and to attaching them to Spain. Ip the 
eyes of the Spanish law, for a brief period, Spaniard and 
colonists had become equal, and La Torre tried to enforce 
this principle and make no distinction of race or birth. 
While Filipinos were encouraged and delighted, it is im- 
possible to describe the disgust of the Spanish population 
and the opposition of the friars. La Torre was attacked 
and opposed, and the entire course of his governorship 
was filled with trouble, in which, naturally, liberal ideas 
gained wider §,nd wider currency among the Filipinos. 


Effect of the Opposition of the Friars. — The friars, 
being the most influential opponents of the FiUpino, 
naturally came to be regarded by the Filipinos as their 
greatest enemies, and the anti-friar spirit daily spread 
and intensified. A party was formed which demanded 
that the friars vacate the parishes, and that their places 
be filled by secular priests, in accordance with the 
statutes of the Council of Trent. This party was headed 
by a native priest, Dr. Jose Burgos. 

A Filipino Movement for Reform. — After the fall of 
the republic in Spain and the restoration of the monarchy, 
the administration in the Philippines attempted to extir- 
pate the rising tide of liberal thought; but these ideas had 
taken root and could not be suppressed. The Filipino 
party, if so we may call it, continued to plan and work 
for reform. It numbered not only those of Filipino blood, 
but many of Spanish descent, born in the Philippines. 
There is no certain evidence that they were at this time 
plotting for independence, or that their actions were trea- 
sonable; but the fear and hatred felt by the Spaniards 
resulted frequently in the exile and pimishment of known 
advocates of reform. 

The Cavite Revolt. — In 1872 there occurred an im- 
portant outbreak known as the Cavite Revolt. Two 
hundred native soldiers at the Cavite arsenal rose, 
killed their officers, and shouted " Death to Spain!" They 
had fellow-conspirators among the troops in Manila, but 
owing to mistakes in their plans these failed to rise with 
them and the revolt was easily suppressed. 

It was immediately followed by the arrest of a large 
number of Filipinos who had been conspicuous in La 
Torre's time and who were advocates of reform. This 
number included the three priests. Fathers Burgos, Za- 


mora, and Gomez, besides Don Antonio Regidor, Don 
Joaquin Pardo de Taverai, Don Pedro Carillo, and others. 
A council of war condemned to death forty-one of the 
participants in the Cavite riot, and these were shot on 
the morning of the 27th of January, 1872, on the Field 
of Bagumbayan. On the 6th of February a council of 
war condemned to death eleven more soldiers of the 
regiment of artillery, but this sentence was commuted by 
the governor to life imprisonment. On the 15th of Feb- 
ruary the same council of war sentenced to death upon 
the garrote, the priests Burgos, Zamora, Gomez, and a 
countryman, Saldua; and this sentence was executed on 
the morning of the 17th. 

The Spread of Secret Organizations. — Masonry. — New 
ground for fear was now found in the spread of secret 
organizations, which were denounced as Free Masonry. 
This is a very ancient institution which, in Protestant 
countries like England and America, has a very large 
membership, and in these countries its aims are wholly 
respectable. It has never in any way been connected 
with sedition or other unworthy movements. Its services 
are, in fact, largely of a religious character and it possesses 
a beautiful and elaborate Christian ritual; but in Latin 
coimtries Masonry has been charged mth political intrigue 
and the encouragement of infidelity, and this has resulted 
in clerical opposition to the order wherever foimd. The 
first Masonic lodge in the Philippines was established 
about 1861 and was composed entirely of Spaniards. It 
was succeeded by others with Filipino membership, and 
in one way or another seems to have inspired many secret 

The "Liga Filipina " and Dr. Bizal, — Large mmibers 
of Filipinos were now working, if not for independence, 



at least for the expulsion of the friars; and while this 
feeling should have been met by a statesmanlike and 
liberal pojicy of reform, the government constantly re- 
sorted to measures of repression, which little by little 
changed the movement for reformation into revolution. 
In 1887 the "Liga Filipina" was formed by a number 
of the younger Filipino patriots, chief among whom was 
Dr. Jose Rizal y Mercado. Rizal, by his gifts, his noble 
character, and his sad 
fate, has gained a su- 
preme place in the 
hearts of Filipinos and 
in the history of the 
Islands. He was born 
in 1861 at Calamba, on 
Laguna de Bay, and 
even as a child he was 
affected with sadness 
at the memory of the 
events of 1872 and with 
the backward and un- 
happy condition of his 
countrymen. He was 
educated by the Jesu- 
its at the Ateneo Municipal in Manila, and his family 
having means, he was enabled to study in Spain, where 
he took a degree in medicine, and later to travel and 
study in France, England, and Germany, 
i It was in this latter country that he produced his first 
novel, Noli Me Tangere. He had been a contributor 
to the Filipino paper published in Spain, "La Solidar- 
idad," and, to further bring the conditions and needs of 
his country to more public notice, he wrote this novel 

Dr. Rizal. 


dealing with Tagdlog life as represented at his old home 
on Laguna de Bay and in the city of Manila. Later he 
published a sequel, El Filibusterismo, in which eyen more 
courageously and significantly are set forth his ideas for 

His work made him many enemies, and on his return 
to Manila he found himself in danger and was obliged to 
leave. He returned again in 1893, and was immediately 
arrested and sentenced to deportation to Dapitan, Min- 
danao. Here he remained quietly in the practice of his 
profession for some years. 

The Katipunan. — Meanwhile the ideas which had been 
agitated by the wealthy and educated Filipinos had 
worked their way down to the poor and humble classes. 
They were now shared by the peasant and the fisherman. 
Especially in those provinces where the religious orders 
owned estates and took as rental a portion of the ten- 
ants' crop, there was growing hatred and hostility to the 
friars. The "Liga Filipina" had been composed of cul- 
tivated and moderate men, who while pressing for reform 
were not inclined to radical extremes, nor to obtain their 
ends by violent means. 

But there now grew up and gradually spread, until it 
had its branches and members in all the provinces s;ir- 
rounding Manila, a secret association composed largely of 
the uneducated classes, whose object was independence of 
Spain, and whose members, having little to lose, were 
willing to risk all. This was the society which has since 
become famous under the name of "Katipunan." This 
secret association was organized in Oavite about 1892. 
Its president and founder was Andres Bonifacio. Its 
objects were frankly to expel the friars, and, if possible, to 
destroy the Spanish government. 


Rebellion of i8g6. — A general attack and slaughter of 
the Spaniards was planned for the 20th of August, 1896. 
The plot was discovered by the priest of Binondo, Padre 
Gil, who learned of the movement through the wife of one 
of the conspirators, and within a few hours the government 
had seized several hundred persons who were supposed to 
be implicated. The arrests included many rich and prom- 
inent Filipinos, and at the end of some weeks the Spanish 
prisons contained over five thousand suspects. Over one 
thousand of these were almost immediately exiled to far- 
distant Spanish prisons — Fernando Po, on the west 
coast of Africa, and the fortress of Ceuta, on the Mediter- 

Meanwhile the Katipunan was organizing its forces for 
struggle. On the 26th of August, one thousand insurgents 
attacked Caloocan, and four days later a pitched battle 
was fought at San Juan del Monte. In this last fight the 
insurgents suffered great loss, their leader, Valenzuela, 
was captured and, with three companions, shot on the 
Campo de Bagumbayan. The rising continued, however, 
and the provinces of Pampanga, Bulacan, and Nueva 
Ecija were soon in full rebellion. The center of revolt, 
however, proved to be Cavite. This province was almost 
immediately cleared of Spaniards, except the long neck 
of land containing the town of Cavite and protected by 
the fleet. Here the insurgents received some organization 
under a young man, who had been prominent in the 
Katipunan — Emilio Aguinaldo. 

The governor-general, Blanco, a humane man, who after- 
wards for a short time commanded in Cuba, was recalled, 
and General Polavieja replaced him. The Spanish army 
at the beginning of the revolt had consisted of but fifteen 
hundred troops, but so serious was the revolt regarded 



that Spain, although straining every energy at the mo- 
ment to end the rebelHon in Cuba, strengthened the 
forces in the Philippines, until Polavieja had an army of 
twenty-eight thousand Spaniards assisted by several loyal 

Filipino regiments. 
With this army a 
fierce campaign in 
C a V i t e province 
was conducted, 
which after fifty- 
two days' hard 
fighting ended in 
the defeat of the 
insurgents and the 
scattering of their 

Death of Dr. 
Rizal. — For the 
moment it looked 
as though the re- 
bellion might pass. 
Then the Spanish 
government of Po- 
lavieja disgraced 
itself by an act as 
wanton and cruel 
as it was inhuman 
and impolitic. 
Four years Dr, Rizal had spent in exile at Dapitan. He 
had lived quietly and under surveillance, and it was im- 
possible that he could have had any share in this rebellion 
of 1898. Wearied, however, with his inactivity, he so- 
licited permission to go as an army doctor to the dreadful 




















Emilio Aguinaldo. 


Spanish hospitals in Cuba. This request was granted in 
July, and Rizal had the misfortune to arrive in Manila at 
the very moment of discovery of the rebellion in August. 
Governor Blanco hastened to send him to Spain with a 
most kindly letter to the minister of war, in which he 
vouched for his independence of the events which were 
taking place in Manila. 

His enemies, however, could not see him escape. Their 
persecution followed him to the Peninsula, and, upon his 
arrival in Spain, Rizal was at once arrested and sent 
back to Manila a prisoner. His friend Blanco had gone. 
Polavieja, the friend and tool of the reactionary party, was 
busy punishing by imprisormient, banishment or death 
all Filipinos who could be shown to have the slightest 
part or association in the movement for reform. And by 
this clique Dr. Rizal was sentenced to execution. He 
was shot early on the morning of December 30, 1896.' 
At his death the insurrection flamed out afresh. It now 
spread to Pangasinan, Zambales, and Ilocos. 

End of the. Revolt by Promises of Reform. — Pola- 
vieja returned to Spain, and was succeeded by Gen. 
Primo de Rivera, who arrived in the spring of 1897. The 
Spanish troops had suffered several recent reverses and 
the country swarmed with insurgents. The policy of 
Primo de Rivera was to gain by diplomacy where the 
energy of his predecessor had failed. In July, 1897, an 
amnesty proclamation was issued, and in August the 
governor-general opened negotiations with Aguinaldo, 
whose headquarters were now in the mountains of Angat 
in Bulacan. Primo de Rivera urged the home govern- 

' An account of Rizal's trial and execution, together with many 
papers on the revolution, is printed by Retana. See Archwo, Tomo IV. 
Documentos politicos de Actualidad. 


ment to make some reforms, which would greatly lessen 
the political importance , of the friars. He was vehe- 
mently opposed by the latter, but it was probably upon 
the promise of reform that Aguinaldo and his fellow- 
insurgents agreed, for the payment of 1,700,000 pesos, to 
surrender their arms, dismiss the insurgent forces, and 
themselves retire from the Islands. This agreement was 
made, and on December 27, 1897, Aguinaldo left the port 
of Sual for Hongkong. 

The Spanish Misrule Ended. — Conditions in the prov- 
inces still continued very unsatisfactory, and in its very 
last hours the Spanish government lost the remnant of 
its prestige with the people by a massacre in Calle Camba, 
Binondo, of a company of Bisayan sailors. Ten days 
after this occurrence a revolt blazed out on the island of 
Cebu. Had events taken their course, what would have 
been the final conclusion of the struggle between Span- 
iards and Filipinos it is impossible to say. On the 25th 
day of April the United States declared war upon Spain, 
and the first day of May an American fleet reached Ma- 
nila harbor, and in the naval fight off Cavite, Spanish 
dominion, which had lasted with only one brief interrup- 
tion for 332 years, was broken. 


Beginning of a New Era. — With the passing of the 
Spanish sovereignty to the Americans, a new era began 
in the Phihppines. Already the old Spanish rule seems 
so far removed that we can begin to think of it without 
feeling and study it without prejudice. 

Development of the United States of America. — The 
American nation is the type of the New World. Begin- 
ning in a group of colonies, planted half a century later 
than the settlement of the Philippines, it has had a de- 
velopment unparalleled in the history of states. Although 
peopled by emigrants from Europe, who rigidly preserved 
both their purity of race and pride of ancestry, the Amer- 
ican colonists, at the end of a century, were far separated 
in spirit and institutions from the Old World. 

Struggle \yith the wilderness and with the savage pro- 
duced among them a society more democratic and more 
independent than Europe had ever known; while their 
profoimd religious convictions saved the colonists from 
barbarism and intellectual decline. It can truthfully be 
held, that in 1775, at the outbreak of the American Rev- 
olution, the colonists had abler men and greater political 
ability than the mother-country of England. It was 
these men who, at the close of the Revolution, framed 
the American Constitution, the greatest achievement in 
the history of public law. This nation, endowed at its 
commencement with so precious an inheritance of politi- 
cal genius, felt its civil superiority to the illiberal or in- 
effective government* of Europe, and this feeUng has 




produced in Americans a supreme and traditional con- 
fidence in their own forms of government and democratic 
standards of life. Certainly their history contains much 
to justify the choice of their institutions. 

A hundred and twenty-five years ago, these colonies 
were a small nation of 2,500,000 people, occupying no 
more than the Atlantic coast of ' the continent. Great 
mountain chains divided them from the interior, which 
svas overrun by the fiercest and most warlike type of 
man that the races have produced — the American In- 
lian. With an energy which has shown no diminishing 
Tom generation to generation, the American broke through 
:hese mountain chains, subdued the wilderness, conquered 
:he Indian tribes, and in the space of three generations 
Nas master of the continent of North America. 

Even while engaged in the War for Independence, the 
^erican frontiersman crossed the Appalachians and se- 
mred Kentucky and the Northwest Territory, and with 
;hem the richest and most productive regions of the 
Temperate Zone, — the Mississippi Valley. In 1803, the 
;reat empire of Louisiana, falling from the hand of France, 
vas added to the American nation. In 1818, Florida was 
;eded by Spain, and in 1857, as a result of war with 
Mexico, came the Greater West and the Pacific seaboard. 
This vast dominion, nearly three thousand miles in width 
rom east to west, has been peopled by natural increase 
md by immigration from Europe, until, at the end of the 
lineteenth century, the American nation numbered sev- 
;nty-four million souls. 

This development has taken place without fundamental 
jhange in the constitution or form of goverrmient, without 
OSS of individual liberty, and constantly increasing na- 
;ional prosperity. Moreover, the States have survived the 


Civil War, the most bloody and persistently fought war 
of all modern centuries — a war in which a million sol- 
diers fell, and to sustain which three and a half billion 
dollars in gold were expended out of the national treasury. 
This war accomplished the abolition of negro slavery, the 
greatest economic revolution ever effected by a single blow. 

Such in brief is the history of the American nation, so 
gifted with political intelligence, so driven by sleepless 
energy, so proud of its achievements, and inwardly so 
contemptuous of the more polished but less liberal life of 
the Old World. Europe has never understood this nation, 
and not until a few years ago did Europeans dream of its 
progress and its power. 

Relation of the United States to South American Repub- 
lics. — Toward the republics of Spanish America the 
United States has always stood in a peculiar relation. 
These countries achieved their independence of Spain 
under the inspiration of the success of the United States. 
Their governments were framed in imitation of the Amer- 
ican, and in spite of the turbulence and disorder of their 
political life, the United States has always felt and mani- 
fested a strong sympathy for these states as fellow-repub- 
lics. She has moreover pledged herself to the mainte- 
nance of their integrity against the attacks of European 
powers. This position of the United States in threaten- 
ing with resistance the attempt of any European power 
to seize American territory is known as the Monroe Doc- 
trine, because it was first declared by President Monroe 
in 1823. 

Sympathy of American People for the Oppressed Cubans. 
— The fact that the American nation attained its own 
independence by revolution has made the American people 
give ready sympathy to the cause of the revolutionist. 


The people of Cuba, who made repeated ineffective strug- 
gles against Spanish sovereignty, always had the good 
wishes of the American people. By international usage, 
however, one nation may not recognize or assist revolu- 
tionists against a friendly power until their independence 
is practically effected. 

Thus, when rebellion broke out afresh in Cuba in 1894, 
the United States government actively suppressed the 
lending of assistance to the Cubans, as was its duty, al- 
though the American people themselves heartily wished 
Cuba free. The war in Cuba dragged along for years and 
became more and more merciless. The passions of Cu- 
bans and Spaniards were so inflamed that quarter was 
seldom given, and prisoners were not spared. Spain 
poured her troops into the island until there were 120,000 
on Cuban soil, but the rebellion continued. 

The Spanish have always been merciless in dealing 
with revolutionists. Americans, on the other hand, have 
always conceded the moral right of a people to resist 
oppressive government, and in the entire history of the 
United States there has scarcely been a single punish- 
ment for political crime. Although probably the fiercest 
war in history was the American Civil War from 1861 to 
1865, there was not a single execution for treason. Thus 
the stories of the constant executions of political pris- 
oners, on an island in sight of its own shores, greatly 
exasperated America, as did the policy of Governor-gen- 
eral Weyler, which was pxcessive in its severity. 

War with Spain. — Destruction of the "Maine." — As 
the contest proceeded without sign of termination, the 
patience of the American people grew less. Then, Feb- 
ruary 15, 1898, occurred one of the most deplorable events 
of recent times. The American battleship "Maine," lying 


in the harbor of Havana, was, in the night, blown to de- 
struction by mine or torpedo, killing 266 American officers 
and sailors. It is impossible to believe that so dastardly 
an act was done with the knowledge of the higher Spanish 
officials; but the American people rightly demanded that 
a government such as Spain maintained in Cuba, unable 
to prevent such an outrage upon the vessel of a friendly 
power, and that could neither suppress its rebellion nor 
wage war humanely, should cease. 

Declaration of War. — On April 19th the American 
Congress demanded that Spain withdraw from the island 
and recognize the independence of Cuba. This was prac- 
tically a declaration of war. Spain indignantly refused, 
and resolved upon resistance.. Unfortunately, the igno- 
rant European press claimed for Spain military and naval 

The war was brief, and was an overwhelming disaster 
to Spain. Every vessel of her proud navy that came 
under the fire of American guns was destroyed. 

For a few months battle raged along the coasts of 
Cuba, and then Spain sued for peace. 

Deivey's Victory in Manila Bay. — But meanwhile 
the war, begim without the slightest reference to the 
Philippine Islands, had brought about surprising conse- 
quences here. 

At the opening of the war, both Spain and the United 
States had squadrons in Asiatic waters. The Spanish 
fleet lay at Cavite, the American ships gathered at Hong- 
kong. Immediately on the declaration of war, the Amer- 
ican naval commander, Dewey, was ordered to destroy 
the Spanish fleet, which was feared on the Pacific coast of 
America. Dewey entered the Bay of Manila in darkness 
on the morning of May 1st, and made direct for the 


Spanish vessels at Cavite. His fleet was the more power- 
ful and immeasurably the more efficient. In a few hours 
the Spanish navy was utterly destroyed and Manila lay 
at the mercy of his guns. 

.4 JVew Insurrection under Aguinaldo. — At this sig- 
nal catastrophe to Spain, the smoldering insurrection in 
the Islands broke out afresh. The Spanish troops not in 
Manila were driven in upon their posts, and placed in a 
position of siege. The friars, so hated by the revolution- 
ists, were captured in large numbers and were in some 
cases killed. With the permission and assistance of the 
American authorities, Aguinaldo returned from Singapore, 
and landed at Cavite. Here he immediately headed anew 
the Philippine insurrection. 

Capture of Manila. — Troops were dispatched from 
San Francisco for the capture of Manila. By the end of 
July, 8,500 men lay in the transports off Cavite. They 
were landed at the little estuary of Paranaque, and ad- 
vanced northwards upon Fort San Antonio and the de- 
fenses of Malate. The Spaniards behind the city's defenses, 
although outnumbering the Americans, were sick and 
dispirited. One attempt was made to drive back the 
invading army, but on the following day the Americans 
swept through the defenses and line of blockhouses, and 
Manila capitulated (August 13, 1898). 

The Filipinos had scarcely participated in the attack 
on the city, and they were excluded from occupying it 
after its surrender. This act was justified, because the 
Filipino forces had been very recently raised, the sol- 
diers were undisciplined, and had they entered the city, 
with passions as they were inflamed, it was feared by the 
Americans that their officers might not be able to keep 
them from looting and crime.- 


Misunderstanding between Americans and Filipinos. ; — 

Up to this point, the relations between the American and 
Filipino armies had been friendly. But here began that 
misurfderstanding and distrust which for so many months 
were to alienate these two peoples and imbitter their 

Provisional Government of the Filipinos- — In the 
interval between the destruction of the Spanish fleet and 
the capture of Manila, the Filipinos in Cavite had or- 
ganized a provisional government and proclaimed the in- 
dependence of the archipelago. 

American Ideas in Regard to the Philippines. — The 
idea of returning these islands to the Spanish power was 
exceedingly repugnant to American sentiment. Spain's 
attitude toward revolutionists was well understood in 
America, and the Filipinos had acted as America's friends 
and allies. On the other hand, the American government 
was unwilling to turn over to the newly organized Filipino 
republic the government of the archipelago. It was felt 
in America, and with reason, that this Filipino govern- 
ment was not truly representative of all the people in the 
Philippihes, that the Filipino leaders were untried men, 
and that the people themselves had not had political 
training and experience. The United States, having over- 
thrown the Spanish government here, was under obliga- 
tion to see that the government established in its place 
would represent all and do injustice to none. The Fili- 
pinos were very slightly known to Americans, but their 
educated class was believed to be small and their political 
ability unproven. Thus, no assurances were given to the 
Filipino leaders that their government would be recognized, 
or that their wishes would be consulted in the future of 
the Islands. In fact, these matters could be settled only 



by action of the American Congress, which was late in 
assembUng and slow to act. 

The Terms of Peace. — Spain and America were now 
negotiating terms of peace. These negotiations were con- 
ducted at Paris, and dragged on during many critical 

weeks. The Fili- 
pinos were natu- 
rally very much 
concerned over 
the outcome. 

Finally, the 
American govern- 
m e n t demanded 
of Spain that she 
cede the Islands 
to the Un ited 
States and ac- 
cept the s\mi of 
$20,000,000 gold, 
for public works 
and improvements 
which she had 

Suspicions of 
the Fil i p ill o 
Leaders. — These 
terms became 
Icnown in Decem- 
ber, 1898. They served to a-v\(aken the worst suspicions 
of the Filipino leaders. Many believed that they were 
about to exchange the oppressive domination of Spain 
for the selfish and equally oppressive domination of Amer- 
ica. There is reason to believe that some leaders coun- 

General Luna. 



seled patience, and during the succeeding months made a 
constant effort to maintain the peace, but the radical party 
among the Filipinos was led by a man of real gifts and 
fiery disposition, Antonio Luna. He had received an edu- 
cation in Europe, had had some instruction in military 
affairs, and when 
in September the 
Filipino govern- 
ment was trans- 
ferred to Malolos, 
Luna became the 
general in chief of 
the military forces. 
He was also editor 
of the most radical 
Filipino newspa- 
per, "La Indepen- 

New Filipino 
Government. — On 
January 4, 1899, 
President McKin- 
ley issued a spe- 
cial message to 
General Otis, com- 
manding the armies 
of the United 

States in the Philippines, declaring that American sover- 
eignty must be recognized without conditions. It was 
thought in the United States that a firm declaration of 
this kind would be accepted by the Filipinos and that 
they would not dare to make resistance. The intentions 
of the American president and nation, as subsequent 

Apolinario Mabini. 


events have proven, were to deal with the Fihpinos 
with great Uberality; but the president's professions 
were not trusted by the Filipinos, and the result of 
Mr. McKinley's message was to move them at once to 
frame an independent government and to decide on 

This new government was framed at Malolos, Bulacan, 
by a congress with representatives from most of the 
provinces of central Luzon. The "Malolos Constitution" 
was proclaimed January 23, 1899, and Don Emilio Agui- 
naldo was elected president. The cabinet, or ministry, 
included Don Apolinario Mabini, secretary of state ; Don 
Teodoro Sandico, secretary of interior ; General Baldo- 
mero Aguinaldo, secretary of war; General Mariano Trias, 
secretary of treasury ; Don Engracio Gonzaga, secretary 
of public instruction and agriculture. 

War with the Americans. — Battle of Manila. — The 
Filipino forces were impatient for fighting, and attack 
on the American lines surrounding Manila began on the 
night of February 4th. It is certain that battle had 
been decided upon and in preparation for some time, and 
"that fighting would have been begun in any case, before 
the arrival of reinforcements from America; but the at- 
tack was precipitated a little early by the killing at San 
Juan Bridge of a Filipino officer who refused to halt when 
challenged by an American sentry. On that memorable 
and dreadful night, the battle raged with great fury along 
the entire circle of defenses surrounding the city, from 
Tondo on the north to Fort San Antonio de Abad, south 
of the suburb of Malate. Along three main avenues from 
the north, east, and south the Filipinos attempted to 
storm and enter the capital, but although they charged 
with reckless bravery, and for hours sustained a bloody 


combat, they had fatally underestimated the fighting 
qualities of the American soldier. 

The volunteer regiments of the American army came 
almost entirely from the western United States, where 
young men are naturally trained to the use of arms, and 
are imbued by inheritance with the powerful and aggres- 
sive qualities of the American frontier. When morning 
broke, the Filipino line of attack had, at every point, been 
shattered and thrown back, and the Americans had 
advanced their positions on the north to Caloocan, on 
the east to the Water Works and the Mariquina Valley, 
and on the south to Pasay. 

Declaration of War. — Unfortunately, during the night 
attack and before the disaster to Filipino arms was ap- 
parent, Aguinaldo had laimched against the United States 
a declaration of war. This declaration prevented the 
Americans from trusting the Filipino overtures which 
followed this battle, and peace was not made. 

The Malolos Campaign. — On March 25th began the 
American advance upon the Filipino capital of Malolos. 
This Malolos campaign, as it is usually called, occupied 
six days, and ended in the driving of the Filipino army 
and government from their capital. Hard fighting took 
place in the first days of this advance, and two extremely 
worthy American officers were killed, Colonels Egbert and 

The Filipino army was pursued in its retreat as far as 
Calumpit, where on the southern bank of the Rio Grande 
de Pampanga the American line rested during the height 
of the rainy season. During this interval the volunteer 
regiments, whose terms of service had long expired, were 
returned to the States, and their places taken by regi- 
ments of the regular army. 


The American Army. — The American army at that 
time, besides the artillery, consisted of twenty-five regi- 
ments -of infantry and ten of cavalry. Congress now- 
authorized the organization of twenty-four new regiments 
of infantry, to be known as the 26th to the 49th Regi- 
ments of U. S. Volunteers, and one volunteer regiment of 
cavalry, the 11th, for a service of two years. These 
regiments were largely officered by men from civil life, 
familiar with a great variety of callings and professions, 
— men for the most part of fine character, whose services 
in the months that followed were very great not only in 
the field, but in gaining the friendship of the Filipino 
people and in representing the character and intentions 
of the American government. 

Anti- War Agitators in America. — Through the sum- 
mer of 1899 the war was not pressed by the American 
general, nor were the negotiations with the Filipino leaders 
conducted with success. The Filipinos were by no means 
dismayed. In spite of their reverses, they believed the con- 
quest of the Islands impossible to foreign troops. Further- 
more, the war had met with tremendous opposition in Amer- 
ica. Many Americans believed that the war was against 
the fundamental rights of the Filipino people. They 
attacked the administration with unspeakable bitterness. 
They openly expressed sympathy for the Filipino revolu- 
tionary cause, and for the space of two years their encour- 
agement was an important factor in sustaining the rebellion. 

Spread of the Insurrection. — In these same summer 
months the revolutionary leaders spread their cause among 
the surrounding provinces and islands. The spirit of re- 
sistance was prominent at first only among the Tagdlog, 
but gradually nearly all the Christianized population was 
united in resistance to the American occupation. 


Occupation of J^egros. — The Americans had mean- 
while occupied Iloilo and the Bisayas, and shortly after- 
wards the presidios in Mindanao surrendered by the 
Spaniards. In Negros, also, exceptional circumstances had 
transpired. The people in this island invited American 
sovereignty; and Gen. James Smith, sent to the island in 
March as governor, assisted the people in forming a liberal 
government, through which insurrection and disorder in 
that island were largely avoided. 

Death of General Luna. — With the cessation of 
heavy rains, the fighting was begun again in northern 
Luzon. The Filipino army had its headquarters in Tarlac, 
and its lines occupied the towns of the provinces of Pangas- 
inan and Nueva Ecija, stretching in a long line of posts 
from the Zambales Mountains almost to the upper waters 
of the Rio Pampanga. It was still well armed, provis- 
ioned, and resolute; but the brilliant, though wayward, 
organizer of this army was dead. The Nationalist junta, 
which had directed the Philippine government and army, 
had not been able to reconcile its differences. It is re- 
ported that Luna aspired to a dictatorship. He was killed 
by soldiers of Aguinaldo at Cabanatuan. 

The Campaign in Jforthern Luzon. — The American 
generals now determined upon a strategic campaign. 
General MacArthur was to command an advance up the 
railroad from Calumpit upon Tarlac; General Lawton, 
with a flying column of swift infantry and cavalry, was 
to make a flanking movement eastward through Nueva 
Ecija and hem the Filipino forces in upon the east. Mean- 
while, General Wheaton was to convey a force by trans- 
port to the Gulf of Lingayen, to throw a cordon across 
the Ilocano coast that should cut off the retreat of the 
Filipino army northward. As a strategic movement, this 

Longitude East 


campaign was only partially successful. MacArthur swept 
northward, crushing the Filipino line on his front, his 
advance being led by the active regiment of General 
J. Franklin Bell. Lawton's column scoured the country 
eastward, marching with great rapidity and tremendous 
exertions. Swollen rivers were crossed with great loss of 
life, and the column, cutting loose from its supplies, was 
frequently in need of food. It was in this column that 
the Filipino first saw with amazement the great American 
cavalry horse, so large beside the small pony of the Phil- 
ippines. Lawton's descent was so swift that the Philip- 
pine government and staff narrowly escaped capture. 

On the night of November 11th, the Filipino generals 
held their last council of war at Bayambang on the Rio 
Agno, and resolved upon dispersal. Meanwhile, Wheaton 
had landed at San Fabian, upon the southern Ilocano 
coast, but his force was insufficient to establish an effec- 
tive cordon, and on the night of November 15th Agui- 
naido, with a small party of ministers and officers, closely 
pursued by the cavalry of Lawton under the command 
of General Young, slipped past, through the mountains 
of Pozorubio and Rosario, and escaped up the Ilocano 

Then began one of the most exciting pursuits in re- 
cent wars. The chase never slackened, except in those 
repeated instances when for the moment the trail of 
the Filipino general was lost. From Candon, Aguinaldo 
turned eastward through the comandancias of Lepanto 
and Bontoc, into the wild Igorrote country of the Cor- 
dillera Central. The trail into Lepaiito leads over the 
lofty mountains through the precipitous Tila Pass. On 
the summit, in what was regarded as an impregnable 
position, Gregorio del Pilar, little more than a boy, but a 



brigadier-general, with a small force of soldiers, the rem- 
nant of his command, attempted to cover the retreat of 
his president. But a battalion of the 33d Infantry, under 
Major March, carried the pass, with the total destruction 
of Pilar's command, he himself falling amid the slain. 

C aptur e of 
Ag uina.ldo- — 
Major March then 
pursued Aguinaldo 
into Bontoc and 
thence southward 
into the wild and 
mountainous terri- 
tory of Quiangan. 
On Christmas 
night, 1899, the 
American soldiers 
camped on the 
crest of the Cordil- 
lera, within a few 
miles of the Igor- 
rote village where 
the Filipino force 
was sleeping. Both 
parties were broken 
down and in dire 
distress through 
the fierceness of 
the flight and pursuit, but for several weeks longer Agui- 
naldo's party was able to remain in these mountains and 
elude its pursuers. A month later, his trail was finally 
lost in the valley of the Cagayan. He and his small party 
had passed over the exceedingly difficult trail through the 

General Pilar. 


Sierra Madre Mountains, to the little Tagdlog town of 
Palanan near the Pacific coast. Here, almost entirely cut 
off from active participation in the insurrection, Aguinaldo 
remained until June of 1901, when he was captured by 
the party of General Funston. 

For some weeks following the disintegration of the 
Filipino army, the country appeared to be pacified and 
the insurrection over. The new regiments arriving from 
the United States, an expedition was formed under Gen- 
eral Schwan, which in December and January marched 
southward through Cavite and Lagima provinces and oc- 
cupied Batangas, Tayabas, and the Camarines. Other 
regiments were sent to the Bisayas and to northern Luzon, 
until every portion of the archipelago, except the islands 
of Mindoro and Palawan, contained large forces of Amer- 
ican troops. 

Reorganization of the Filipino Army. — The Filipinos 
had, by no means, however, abandoned the contest, and 
this period of quiet was simply a calm while the insur- 
gent forces were perfecting their organization and prepar- 
ing for a renewal of the conflict under a different form. 
It being found impossible for a Filipino army to keep the 
field, there was effected a secret organization for the 
purpose of maintaining irregular warfare through every 
portion of the archipelago. The Islands were partitioned 
into a great number of districts or ''zones." At the 
head of each was a zone commander, usually with the 
rank of general. The operations of these men were, to a 
certain extent, guided by the counsel or directions of the 
secret revolutionary juntas in Manila or Hongkong, but, 
in fact, they were practically absolute and independent, 
and they exercised extraordinary powers. They recruited 
their own forces and commissioned subordinate com- 


manders. They levied "contributions" upon towns, own- 
ers of haciendas, and individuals of every class, and there 
was a secret civil or municipal organization for collecting 
these revenues. The zone commanders, moreover, ex- 
ercised the terrible power of execution by administrative 

Assassination of Filipinos. — Many of the Filipino 
leaders were necessarily not well instructed in those 
rules for the conduct of warfare which civilized peoples 
have agreed upon as being humane and honorable. Many ■ 
of them tried, especially in the latter months of the war, 
when understanding was more widely diffused, to make 
their conduct conform to international usage; but the 
revolutionary junta had committed the great crime of 
ordering the punishment by assassination of all Filipinos 
who failed to support the insurgent cause. No possible 
justification, in the light of modern morality, can be found 
for such a step as this. The very worst passions were 
let loose in carrying out this policy. Scores of unfortu- 
nate men were assassinated, many of them as the results 
of private enmity. Endless blackmail was extorted and 
communities were terrorized from one end of the archi- 
pelago to the other. 

Irregular Warfare of the Filipinos. — Through the 
surrender of Spanish forces, the capture of the arsenals 
of Cavite and Olongapo, and by purchase through Hong- 
kong, the revolutionary government possessed between 
thirty thousand and forty thousand rifles. These arms 
were distributed to the different military zones, and the 
secret organization which existed in each municipality 
received its proportion. These guns were secreted by the 
different members of the command, except when occasion 
arose for effecting a surprise or making an attack. There 


were no general engagements, but in some towns there 
was almost nightly shooting. Pickets and small detach- 
ments were cut off, and roads became so unsafe through- 
out most of the archipelago that there was no travel by 
Americans except under heavy escort. For a long time, 
also, the orders of the commanding general were so lenient 
that it was impossible to punish properly this conduct when 
it was discovered. 

Death of General Lawton. — The American army, in its 
attempt to garrison every important town in the Islands, 
was cut up into as many as 550 small detachments of post 
garrisons. Thus, while there were eventually sixty thou- 
sand American soldiers in the Islands, it was rare for as 
many as five hundred to take the field, and most of the 
engagelnents of the year 1900 were by small detachments 
of fifty to one hundred men. 

It was in one of these small expeditions that the Ameri- 
can army suffered the greatest single loss of the war. A 
few miles east of Manila is the beautiful Mariquina Valley, 
from which is derived the city's supply of water, and the 
headwaters of this pretty stream He in the wild and pictur- 
esque fastness of San Mateo and Montalban. Although 
scarce a dozen miles from the capital and the headquar- 
ters of a Filipino brigade, San Mateo was not permanently 
occupied by the Americans until after the 18th of Decem- 
ber, 1899, when a force tmder General Lawton was led 
around through the hills to surprise the town. 

Early in the morning the American force came pouring 
down over the hills that lie across the river from the vil- 
lage. They were met by a brisk fire from the insurgent 
command scattered along the banks of the river and in a 
sugar hacienda close to the stream. Here Lawton, con- 
spicuous in white uniform and helmet, accompanying, as 


was his custom, the front line of skirmishers, was struck 
by a bullet and instantly killed. 

Filipino Leaders Sent to Guam. — In November, 1900, 
after the reelection in the United States of President 
McKinley, a much more vigorous pohcy of war was 
inaugurated. In this month General MacArthur, com- 
manding the division, issued a notable general order, 
defining and explaining the laws of war which were 
being violated, and threatening punishment by impris- 
onment of those guilty of such conduct. Some thousands 
of Filipinos under this order were arrested and impris- 
oned. Thirty-nine leaders, among them the high-minded 
but irreconcilable Mabini, were in December, 1900, sent to 
a military prison on the island of Guam. 

Campaigning was much more vigorously prosecuted in 
all military districts. By this time all the American offi- 
cers had become familiar with the insurgent leaders, and 
these were now obliged to leave the towns and establish 
cuartels in remote barrios and in the mountains. 

These measures, pursued through the winter of 1900-01, 
broke the power of the revolution. 

The Philippine Civil Commission. — Another very influ- 
ential factor in producing peace resulted from the presence 
and labors of the Civil Philippine Commission. These 
gentlemen, Judge William H. Taft, Judge Luke E. Wright, 
Judge Henry C. Ide, Professor Dean C. Worceslier, and 
Professor Bernard Moses, were appointed by the president 
in the spring of 1900 to legislate for the Islands and to 
prepare the way for the estabUshment of civil government. 
President McKinley's letter of instructions to this com- 
mission will probably be ranked as one of the ablest and 
most notable public papers in American history. 

The commission reached the Islands in June and began 



their legislative work on September 1st. This body of 
men, remarkable for . their high character, was able at 
last to bring about an understanding with the Filipino 
leaders and to assure them of the unselfish and honorable 
purposes of the American government. Thus, by the early 
winter of 1900-01 many Filipino gentlemen became con- 
vinced that the best interests of the Islands lay in accept- 
ing American sovereignty, and that they could honorably 
advocate the surrender 
of the insurgent forces. 
These men represented 
the highest attainments 
and most influential po- 
sitions in the Islands. 
In December they 
formed an association 
known as the Federal 
Party, for the purpose 
of inducing the surren- 
der of military leaders, 
obedience to the Amer- 
ican government, and 
the acceptance of peace. 

End of the Insurrec- 
tion. — Under these influences, the insurrection, in the 
spring of 1901, went rapidly to pieces. Leader after leader 
surrendered his forces and arms, and took the oath of alle- 
giance and quietly returned home. By the end of June 
there were but two zone commanders who had not sur- 
rendered, — General Malvar in Batangas, and General 
Lukban in Samar. 

The First Civil Governor. — Peaceful conditions and se- 
curity almost immediately followed these surrenders and 






^ c ^^^1 







Governor Taft. 


determined the president to establish at once civil govern- 
ment. On July 4, 1901, this important step was taken, 
Judge Taft, the president of the Philippine Commission, 
taking office on that date as the first American civil gov- 
ernor of the Philippines. On September 1st, the Philip- 
pine Commission was increased by the appointment of 
three Filipino members, — the Hon. T. H. Pardo de Tavera, 
M. D., the Hon. Benito Legarda, and the Hon. Jose Luzu- 
riaga of Negros. 

The Philippine Commission has achieved a remarkable 
amount of legislation of a very high order. From Sep- 
tember, 1900, to the end of December, 1902, the com- 
mission passed no less than 571 acts of legislation. Some 
of these were of very great importance and involved long 
preparation and labor. Few administrative bodies have 
ever worked harder and with greater results than the 
Philippine Commission during the first two years of its 
activity. The frame of government in all its branches 
had to be organized and set in motion, the civil and crim- 
inal law liberalized, revenue provided, and public instruc- 
tion remodeled on a very extensive scale. 

The New Government. — The government is a very lib- 
eral one, and one which gives an increasing opportunity 
for participation to the Filipinos. It includes what is 
called local self-government. There are in the Islands 
about 1,132 municipalities. In these the residents prac- 
tically manage their own affairs. There are thirty-eight 
organized provinces in the archipelago, in which the ad- 
ministration rests with the Provincial Board composed of 
the governor, treasurer, and supervisor or engineer. The 
governor is elected for the term of one year by the coun- 
cilors of all the towns united in assembly. The treas- 
urer and supervisor are appointed by the governor of the 



Philippine archipelago under the rules of the Civil Ser- 
vice Board. The civil service is a subject which has 
commanded the special consideration of the Commission. 
It gives equal opportunity to the Filipino and to the 
American to enter the public service and to gain public 
promotion; and the Filipino is by law even given the 
preference where possessed of the requisite ability. 

The Palace, Manila. Headquarters of the Government. 

The Insular Government. — For the purposes of admin- 
istration, the insular, or central government of the Islands 
is divided into four branches, called departments, each 
directed by a secretary who is also a member of the Phil- 
ippine Commission. These departments are, interior, Sec- 
retary Worcester; finance and justice. Secretary Ide; com- 
merce and police, Secretary Wright; and public instruc- 
tion, Secretary Moses, until January 1, 1903, and since 


that date Secretary Smith. Under each of these departr 
ments are a large number of bureaus, by which the many 
important activities of the government are performed. 

We have only to examine a list of these bureaus to see 
how many-sided is the work which the government is 
performing. It is a veritable commonwealth, complete in 
all the branches which demand the attention of modern 
governments. Thus, imder the Department of the Inte- 
rior, there is the Bureau of Public Health, with its ex- 
tremely important duties of combating epidemic diseases 
and improving public sanitation, with its public hospitals, 
sanitariums, and charities; the Bureau of Goverrmient 
Laboratories for making bacteriological and chemical in- 
vestigations; a Bureau of Forestry; a Bureau of Mining; 
the Philippine Weather Bureau; a Bureau of Agriculture; 
a Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes for conducting the gov- 
ernment work in ethnology and for framing legislation for 
pagan and Mohammedan tribes; and a Bureau of Public 

Under the department of Commerce and Police are 
the Bureau of Posts; Signal Service; the Philippines 
Constabulary, really an insular army, with its force of 
some sixty-five hundred officers and men; Prisons; the 
Coast Guard and Transportation Service, with a fleet of 
about twenty beautiful little steamers, nearly all of them 
newly built for this service and named for islands of the 
archipelago; the Coast and Geodetic Survey, doing the 
much-needed work of charting the dangerous coasts and 
treacherous waters of the archipelago; and the Bureau of 
Engineering, which has under its charge great public 
works, many of which are already under way. 

Under the Department of Finance and Justice are the 
Insular Treasurer; the Insular Auditor; the Bureau of 


Customs and Immigration; the Bureau of Internal Rev- 
enue; the Insular Cold Storage and Ice Plant; and the 
great Bureau of Justice. 

Under the Department of Public Instruction there is 
the Bureau of Education in charge of the system of public 
schools; a Bureau of Printing and Engraving, with a new 
and fully equipped plant; a Bureau of Architecture; a 
Bureau of Archives; a Bureau of Statistics; and the 
Philippine Museum. 

Reveinies and Expenditures. — The maintenance of 
these numerous activities calls for an expenditure of large 
sums of money, but the insular government and the Filipino 
people are fortunate in having had their finances man- 
aged with exceptional ability. The revenues of the Islands 
for the past fiscal year have amounted to about $10,638,- 
000, gold. Public expenditures, including the purchase 
of equipment such as the coast-guard fleet and the forward- 
ing of great public works such as the improving of the 
harbor of Manila, amounted during fiscal year of 1903 to 
about $9,150,000, gold. The government has at all times 
preserved a good balance in its treasury; but the past 
year has seen some diminution in the amount of revenues, 
owing to the great depreciation of silver money, the fall- 
ing off of imports, the wide prevalence of cholera, and the 
poverty of many parts of the country as a result of war 
and the loss of livestock through pest. To assist the gov- 
ernment of the Philippines, the Congress of the United 
States in February, 1903, with great and characteristic 
generosity appropriated the sum of $3,000,000, gold, as a 
free gift to the people and government of the Philippines. 

The Judicial System. — Especially fortunate, also, have 
been the labors of the commission in establishing a judi- 
cial system and revising the Spanish law. The legal 


ability of the commission is unusually high. As at present 
constituted, the judicial system consists of a Supreme 
Court composed of seven justices, three of whom at the 
present time are Filipinos, which, besides trying cases over 
which it has original jurisdiction, hears cases brought on 
appeal from the Courts of First Instance, fifteen in num- 
ber, which sit in different parts of the Islands. Each town, 
moreover, has its justices of the peace for the trial of 
small cases and for holding preliminary examinations in 
cases of crimes. By the new Code of Civil Procedure, 
the administration of justice has been so simplified that 
there are probably no courts in the world where justice 
can be more quickly secured than here. 

System of Public Schools. — Probably no feature of the 
American government in the Islands has attracted more 
attention than the system of public schools. Popular 
education, while by no means wholly neglected under the 
Spanish government, was inadequate, and was continu- 
ally opposed by the clerical and conservative Spanish 
forces, who feared that the liberalizing of the Filipino 
people would be the loosening of the control of both 
Spanish state and church. On the contrary, the success 
of the American government, as of any government in 
which the people participate, depends upon the intelli- 
gence and education of the people. Thus, the American 
government is as anxious to destroy ignorance and pov- 
erty as the Spanish government and the Spanish church 
were desirous of preserving these deeply unfortunate con- 

Americans believe that if knowledge 'is generally spread 
among the Filipino people, if there can be a real under- 
standing of the genius and purpose of our American insti- 
tutions, there will come increasing content and satisfac- 


fcion to dwell under American law. Thus, education was 
early encouraged by the American army, and it received 
the first attention of the commission. The widespread 
system of public schools which now exists in these islands 
was organized by the first General Superintendent of Pub- 
he Instruction, Dr. Fred W. Atkinson, and by Professor 
Bernard Moses of the Philippine Commission. 

Instruction in the English Language. — The basis 
of this public instruction is the English language. This 
was early decided upon in view of the great number of 
Filipino dialects, the absence of a common native language 
or literature, and the very moderate acquaintance with 
Spanish by any except the educated class. 

It is fortimate for the Filipino people that English has 
been introduced here and that its knowledge is rapidly 
spreading. Knowledge of language is power, and the 
more widely spoken the tongue, the greater the possession 
of the individual who acquires it. Of all the languages 
of the world, English is to-day the most widely spoken 
and is most rapidly spreading. Moreover, English is pre- 
eminently the language of the Far East. From Yoko- 
hama to Australia, and from Manila to the Isthmus of 
Suez, English is the common medium of communication. 
It is the language alike of business and of diplomacy. 
The Filipino people, so eager to participate in all the busy 
life of eastern Asia, so ambitious to make their influence 
felt and their counsels regarded, will be debarred from 
all this unless they master this mighty English tongue. 

The Filipino Assembly. — Thus, after four and a half 
years of American occupation, the sovereignty of the 
United States has been established in the archipelago, and 
a form of government, unique in the history of colonial 
administration, inaugurated. One other step in the con- 


templation of Congress, which will still further make the 
government a government of the Filipino people, remains 
to be taken. This is the formation of a Filipino assembly 
of delegates or representatives, chosen by popular vote 
from all the Christianized provinces of the archipelago. 
The recent census of the Philippines will form the basis for 
the apportionmeut of this representation. This assembly 
will share the legislative power on all matters pertaining 
to the Christian people of the Philippines and those parts 
of the Islands inhabited by them. When this step shall 
have been taken, the government of the Philippine Islands 
will be like the typical and peculiarly American form of 
government known as territorial. 

Territorial Form of Government in the United States, — 
The American Union is composed of a number of states 
or commonwealths which, while differing vastly in wealth 
and population, are on absolutely equal footing in the 
Union. The inhabitants of these states form politically 
the American sovereignty. They elect the president and 
Congress, and through their state legislatures may change 
or amend the form of the American state itself. 

Besides these states, there have always been large pos- 
sessions of the nation called territories. These territories 
are extensive countries, too sparsely inhabited or too un- 
developed politically to be admitted, in the judgment of 
the American Congress, to statehood in the Union. Their 
inhabitants do not have the right to vote for the presi- 
dent; neither have they representation in the American 
Congress. These territories are governed by Congress, 
through territorial governments, and over them Congress 
has full sovereign powers'. That is, as the Supreme Court 
of the United States has decided and explained, while 
Congress when legislating for the states in the Union has 


only those powers of legislation which have been specifi- 
cally granted by the Constitution, in legislating for the 
territories it has all the powers which the Constitution 
has not specifically denied. The only limitations on Con- 
gress are those which, under the American system of public 
law, guarantee the liberty of the individual, — his freedom 
of religious belief and worship; his right to just, open, 
and speedy trial; his right to the possession of his prop- 
erty; and other precious privileges, the result of centuries 
of development in the English-speaking race, which make 
up civil liberty. These priceless securities, which no 
power of the government can take away, abridge, or in- 
fringe, are as much the possession of the inhabitants of 
a territory as of a state.' 

The government of these territories has varied greatly 
in form and may be changed at any time by Congress, 
but it usually consists of a governor and supreme court, 
appointed by the president of the United States, and a 
legislature elected by the people. Since 1783 there has 
always been territory so held and governed by the United 
States, and if we may judge from the remarkable history 
of these regions, this form of government of dependent 
possessions is the most successful and most advantageous 
to the territory itself that has ever been devised. 

At the present time, the territories of the United States 
are Oklahoma, the Indian Territory, New Mexico, Ari- 

' See the decisions of the Supreme Court in the "cases of American 
Insurance Co. v. Canter (1 Peters, 511), decided in 1828; National 
Bank v. County of Yankton (101 U. S. Reports, 129), decided in 1879; 
The Mormon Church v. United States (136 U. S. Reports, 1), decided 
May, 1890. On the domain of personal liberty possessed by the in- 
habitants of a territory, in addition to above cases, see also the cases 
of Reynolds v. United States (98 U. S. Reports, 154), 1878; and Murphy 
V. Ramsey (114 U. S. Reports, 15), 1884. 


zona; Alaska, the Hawaiian Islands, Porto Rico, the Phil- 
ippines, and Guam. 

The territorial form of government has frequently been 
regarded by American statesmen as a temporary condi- 
tion to be followed at a comparatively early date by 
statehood. But after more than a century of develop- 
ment, territorial- government, as shaped by Congress and 
as defined by the Supreme Court, shows itself so flexible 
and advantageous that there is no reason why it should 
not be regarded as a permanent and final form. Whether 
it will long prevail in the Philippines, depends very largely 
upon the political development and ultimate desires of 
the Filipino people themselves. For the present, it is the 
only suitable form of goverimient and the only form 
which it is statesmanlike to contemplate. 

Filipino Independence. — The events of the last few 
years seem to indicate that the American nation will not 
intrust the Philippines with independence until they have 
immeasurably gained in political experience and social 
self-control. The question is too great to be discussed 
here, but this much may be said: The rapid march of 
international politics in this coming century will not be 
favorable to the independence of the small and imper- 
fectly developed state. Independence, while it may fas- 
cinate the popular leader, may not be most advantageous 
for this people. Independence, under present tendencies 
of international trade, means economic isolation. Inde- 
pendence, in the present age, compels preparedness for 
war; preparedness for war necessitates the maintenance of 
strong armies, the building of great navies, and the great 
economic burdens required to sustain these armaments. 
Especially would this be true of an archipelago so exposed 
to attack, so surrounded by ambitious powers, and so 


near the center of coming struggle, as are the Phihppines. 
Japan, with a population of forty-two million, wonderful 
for their industry and economy, and passionately devoted 
to their emperor, is independent, but at great cost. The 
burden of her splendid army and her modern navy weighs 
heavily upon her people, consumes a large proportion of 
their earnings, and sometimes seems to be threatening to 
strain the resources of the nation almost to the point of 

Advantages of American Control. — Surely, a people is 
economically far more privileged if, Uke the Philippines 
under the American government, or Australia under the 
British, they are compelled to sustain no portion of the 
burden of exterior defense. The navies of the United 
States to-day protect the integrity of the Philippine archi- 
pelago. The power of a nation so strong and so terrible, 
when once aroused, that no country on the globe would 
think for a minute of wantonly molesting its territory, 
shields the Filipino from all outside interference and per- 
mits him to expend all his energy in the development of 
those abilities to which his temperament and endowment 
inspire him. 

American government means freedom of opportunity. 
There is no honorable pursuit, calling, or walk of life 
under heaven in which the Filipino may not now engage 
and in which he will not find his endeavors encouraged 
and his success met with generous appreciation. In poli- 
tics, his progress may be slow, because progress here is 
not the development of the individual nor of the few, but 
of the whole. But in the no less noble pursuits of science, 
literature, and art, we may in this very generation see 
FiUpinos achieving more than notable success and dis- 
tinction, not only for themselves but for their land. 


Patriotic Duty. — Patriotic duty, as regards the Philip- 
pines, means for the American a wholesome belief in the 
uprightness of the national purposes; a loyal appreciation 
of the men who have here worked wisely and without 
selfishness, and have borne the brunt of the toil; a loyalty 
to the government of the Philippines and of the United 
States, so long as these governments live honestly, rule 
justly, and increase liberty; and a frank and hearty rec- 
ognition of every advance made by the Filipino people 
themselves. And for the Filipinos, patriotic duty means 
a full acceptance of government as it has now been estab- 
lished, as better than what has preceded, and perhaps 
superior to what he himself would have chosen and could 
have devised; a loyalty to his own people and to their 
interests and to the public interests, that shall overcome 
the personal selfishness that has set its cruel mark on 
every native institution in this land; and a resolution to 
obey the laws, preserve the peace, and use faithfully 
every opportunity for the development of his own char- 
acter and the betterment of the race. 



1571-1572 Don Miguel Lopez de Legaspi. 

1572-1575 (Tesorero) Guido de Labezares. 

1575-15S0 Don Francisco La-Sande. 

1580-1583 Don Gonzalo Ronquillo. 

1583-1584 Don Diego Ronquillo. 

1584r-1590 Dr. Don Santiago de Vera. 

1590-1593 Don Gomez Perez de Dasmarinas. 

1593-1595 Luis Perez Dasmarinas. 

1595-1596 Don Antonio de Morga. 

1596-1602 Don Francisco Tello de Guzman. 

1602-1606 Don Pedro Bravo de Acuiia. 

1606-1608 Royal Audiencia. 

1608-1609 Don Rodrigo Vivero. 

1609-1616 Don Juan de Silva. 

1616-1618 Don Andres Alcazar. 

1618-1624 Don Alonso Faxardo y Tenza. 

1624-1625 Royal Audiencia. 

1625-1626 Don Fernando de Silva. 

1626-1632 Don Juan Nino de Tabora. 

1632-1633 Royal Audiencia. 

1633-1635 Don Juan Zerezo de Salamanca. 

1635-1644 Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera. 

1644-1653 Don Diego Faxardo y Chacon. 

1653-1663 Sabiano Manrique de Lara. 

1663-1668 Don Diego Salcedo. 

1668-1669 Seiior Pena Bonifaz. 

1669-1677 Don Manuel de Leon. 

1677-1678 Royal Audiencia. 

1678-1684 Don Juan de Vargas. 

1684-1689 Don Gabriel de Curuzalequi. 

1689-1690 Don Alonso de Avila Fuertes. 




1690-1701 Don Fausto Cruzat y Gongora. 

1701-1709 Don Domingo Zabalburu. 

1709-1715 Conde de Lizarraga. 

1715-1717 Royal Audiencia. 

1717-1719 Don Fernando Manuel de Bustamante. 

1719-1721 Archbishop Cuesta. 

1721-1729 Don Toribio 3osi de Cosio y Campo (Marques de Torre 


1729-1739 Don Fernando Valdes y Tamon. 

1739-1745 Don Caspar de la Torre. 

1745-1750 Bishop Father Juan de Arrechedra. 

1750-1754 Don Francisco Jos(5 de Obando y Solis. 

1754^1759 Don Pedro Manuel de Arandia y Santisteban. 

1759-1761 Don Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta (Bishop of Zebu). 

1761-1764 Archbishop Don Manuel Antonio Rojo del Rio y Vieyra. 

1764^1764 Dr. Don Simon de Anda y Salazar. 

1164-1765 Don Francisco de la Torre. 

1765-1770 Don Jos6 Raon. 

1770-1778 Dr. Don Simon de Anda y Salazar. 

1778-1787 Don Jos6 Basco y Vargas. 

1787-1788 Don Pedro Sarrio. 

1788-1793 Don Felix Berenguer de Marquina. 

1793-1806 Don Rafael Maria de Aguilar y Ponce de Leon. 

1806-1810 Don Mariano Fernandez de Folgueras. 

1810-1813 Don Manuel Gonzalez Aguilar. 

1813-1816 Don Jos6 de Gardoqui Jaraveitia. 

1816-1822 Don Mariano Fernandez de Folgueras. 

1822-1825 Don Juan Antonio Martinez. 

1825-1830 Don Mariano Ricafort Palacio y Abarca. 

1830-1835 Don Pascual Enrile y Alcedo. 

1835-1836 Don Gabriel de Torres. 

1836-1838 Don Andres Garcia Camba. 

1838-1^41 Don Luis Lardizabal y Montojo. 

1841-1843 Don Marcelino de Oraa Lecumberri. 

1843-1844 Don Francisco de Paula Aloald de la Torre. 

1844-1850 Don Naroiso ClaverJa y Zaldua. 

1850-1850 Don Antonio Maria Blanco. 

1850-1853 D. Antonio de Urbiztondo, Marques de la Solana y 

Teniente General. 



1853-1854 El Mariscal de Campo de Ramon Montero, General 

Segundo Cabo (acting) . 
1854-1854 EI Teniente General Marques de Novaliches. 
1854-1854 El Mariscal de Campo de Ramon Montero (acting). 
1854^1856 El Teniente General de Manuel Crespo. 
1856-1857 El Mariscal de Campo de Ramon Montero (acting). 
1857-1860 El Teniente General de Fernando de Norzagaray. 
1860-1860 El Mariscal de Campo de Ramon Solano y LUnderal 

1860-1861 El Brigadier de Artilleria de Juan Herrera Ddvila 

1861-1862 El Teniente General de Jose Lemery. 
1862-1865 El Teniente General de Rafael Echagiie. 
1865-1865 El Mariscal de Campo de Joaquin Solano (acting). 
1865-1866 El Teniente General de Juan do Lara e Irigoyen. 
1866-1866 El Mariscal de Campo de Juan Laureano Sanz (acting). 
1866-1866 El Comandante General de Marina de Antonio Ossorio 

1866-1866 El Mariscal de Campo de Joaquin Solano (actilig). 
1866-1866 El Teniente General de Jose de la Gdndara. 
1866-1869 El Mariscal de Campo de Manuel Maldonado (acting). 
1869-1871 El Teniente General de Carlos de la Torre. 
1871-1873 El Teniente General de Rafael Izquierdo. 
1873-1873 El Comandante General de Marina de Manuel Mac- 

Crohon (acting). 
1873-1874 El Teniente General de Juan Alaminos y Vivar. 
1874-1874 El Mariscal de Campo de Manuel Blanco Valderrama 

1874-1877 El Contra Almirante de la Armada de Jos6 Malcampo 

y Monje. 
1877-1880 El Teniente General de Domingo Moriones y Murillo. 
1880-1880 El Comandante General de Marina de Rafael Rodri- 
guez Arias (acting). 
1880-1883 El Teniente General de Fernando Prime de Rivera, 

Marques de Estella. 
1883-1883 El Mariscal de Campo de Emilio de Molins, General 

Segundo Cabo (acting). 
1883-1885 El Capitan General del Ejercito de Joaquin Jovellar 

y Soler. 


1885-1885 El Mariscal de Campo de Emilio de Molins (acting). 

1885-1888 El Teniente General de Emilio Terrero. 

1888-1888 El Mariscal de Campo de Antonio Molto (acting). 

1888-1888 El Cotra Almirante de la Armada de Federico Loba- 
ton (acting). 

1888-1891 El Teniente General de Valeriano Weyler. 

1891-1893 El Teniente General de Eulogio Despojol, Conde de 

1893-1893 EI General de Division de Federico Ochando, General 
Segundo Cabo (acting). 

1893-1896 El Teniente General de Ramon Blanco y Erenas, 
Marques de Pena-Plata. 

1896-1897 El Teniente General de Camilo G. de Polavieja, Mar- 
ques de Polavieja. 

1897-1897 de' Jos6 de Lachambre y Dominguez, Teniente Gen- 
eral (acting). 

1897-1898 de Fernando Primo de Rivera, Capitan General, Mar- 
quis de Estella. 

1898-1898 de Basilio Augustin Teniente General del Ejercito. 

1898-1898 El General Segundo Cabo de Fermin Jaudenes y 






Auditor, Insular . 


Acufia, Don Pedro Bravo de 


Augustinian Order 

. 121 

Adelantado . 


Azores discovered 


Aeta .... 25, 34, 99 

African coast, exploration of 


Bajan . 


Agriculture . 242 




Aguinaldo, Emilio , 283 

, 294 





Barangay . 


Aquinaldo, Gen. Baldomero 


Batanes Islands . 


Albuquerque . 


Bathala ... 


Alcandora, Raja . . 


Bell, General J. Franklin 


Alim ud Din, conversion of 




Aliping namamahay . . 


Benguet . . 


Aknanzar . 




Alphabet, Filipino 


Bicol .... 


America — 

Biscaino, Sebastian 

. 171 

and the Philippines 287 


Bisaya .... 

35, 130 



Blair, Miss E. H. 


revolution in . 


Blood compact . 


wars in 


Bohol . . 206, 

225, 257 

American control . . 


Bonifacio, Andres 

. 282 

Anda y Salazar, Don Simon 

Borneo — 



Mohammedans in 


Anitos. . . . . 


Spanish expedition to 




Bowring, Sir John 


Anti-War Agitators in Amer- 

Brooke, Charles 


ica . . 


Burgos, Dr. Jos6 


Arandi'a, Governor 




Architecture, Bureau of 


Bustamante, Fernando Man- 

Archives, Bureau of 


uel de . . . . 


Ar^valo . . . 147, 


Argeusola, Leonardo de 


Cabalian discovered 


Armada, destruction of 


Cabots, voyage of the 


Atkinson, Dr. Fred W. 


Caceres, Nueva 


Audiencia, Royal . . 


Cagayanes . 


abolished . 


Calambu Raja 


reestablished . 


Calvin, John . . 






Campo, Governor Torre . . 219 

Canaries discovered .... 63 
Cano, Juan Sebastian del 83, 114 

Cantava, Padre .... 22.5 

Carreri .... 21 

Caribs 72 

Carillo, Don Pedro ..... 280 

Carolines 117, 224 

Casas, Las 72, 111 

Cavendish, Thomas .... 175 

Cavite revolt 279 

Cebu 79, 130, 172 

Cedulas, Royal 20 

Century of obscurity . . 212 

Chabucano 266 

Chaniorros 214 

Chao Ju-kua 97 

Charles V 73 

Chavfe, Captain Juan ... 146 

Chavfe, Don Juan de . . . 197 

China about 1400 . . . 56 
Chinese — ■ 

attempt to capture Man- 
ila 140 

distrust of 182 

immigration restricted . 183 

in the Philippines . 97 

first massacre of . . 182 

treaty with the . . . 144 

uprising of 207 

Chirino, Father Predo ... 16 

Church 119,147 

Ciagu, Raja 79 

Cipango ......... 67 

Cities, largest 171 

CivU commission . . . . 308 

Civil Governor, first . . 309 

Claudio, Don Juan .... 202 

Claveria, General . . 265 

Clemente, Juan . . . 170 

Clive, Lord 233 

Coast and Geodetic Survey . 312 

Coast Guard 312 

Code of Civil Procedure 314 

Cofradia . . . 264 


Cold Storage and Ice Plant . 313 

Colin, Father Francisco 17 

Colonial Policy of Spain 113 

Colonization restricted. 112 

Columbus, Christopher . 66 

Combes, Father Francisco 18 

Commerce restricted . 112 

Commerce and Police . . 312 

Commercial House ... 113 

Conquest and Settlement . 125 

Constabulary . . 312 

Constitution, American 287 

Contratacion, Casa de . 113 

Corala .... . 82 

Corcuera, Hortado de 197 

Cornish, Admiral . 234 

Corregidor, battles near . 193 

Cortes 73, 109, 116 

Courts 314 

Crusades 48 

Cruz, Apolinario de la . 263 

Cuba discovered . . 68 
Cubans, American sympatiiy 

for 291 

Customs and Immigration, 

Bureau of . . . . 313 

Da Gama, Vaseo . . 


Dampier . . . 


Dasmarifias .... 




Decree of 1589 . 


Desventuradas . . 


De Vera, Dr. Santiago 


Dewey's victory 

. 293 

Diaz, Bartholomew . 



226, 257 

Dominic, Saint . 

. . 120 

Dominicans . 

120, 148 

Drake, Sir Francis . 


Draper, General 


Ducos, Father . 


Diitch — 

at Mariveles . . 


capture Chinese JunI 

cs 193 



Dutch — Continued 

conflicts with. . . . 

expedition against , 

expeditions to Indies 

in Formosa .... 

trading methods of . 
Dutch and Moro wars 
Dyalcs 33 



East, Far 


Education, Bureau of 
Educational system . 
Educational work of the 
ligious orders . . . 
EncomenderQS . . 
Encomiendas .... 
Engineering, Bureau of 
England about 1400 . . 
England and France . 
English Language . . . 
Esteybar, Don Francisco 
Ethnology, study of 
Europe, wars in . . . 
Explorers, Spanish . . 

51, 56 
53, 66 
. 313 

. 274 

. 205 





. 232 

. 315 






Femandina 172 

Fetishes among the Filipinos 103 

Feudalism 43 

Figueroa, Rodriguez de . . 151 

Filipino alphabet, source of 96 

Filipino independence . . 318 
Filipino people before the 
arrival of the Spaniards 


Filipino writings, early . 96 
Filipinos — 

assassination of . . 306 

classes of . . . . . 103 

converted to Christianity 168 

distribution of . . . . 88 

in eighteenth century . 225 

in movement for reform 279 

increase in educated. . . 277 


Filipinos — Continued 

liberal ideas among . . . 273 
life and progress of . . 206 
material progress of . . 106 
misunderstanding be- 
tween Americans and . 295 
reorganize army . 305 
religion of . . . 105 
under the Encomiendas 161 
Finance and Justice, De- 
partment of 312 

Florida discovered . . 73 
Food, scarcity of . . .165 

Forestry, Bureau of ... 312 

Formosa 194, 202 

France — 

about 1400 46 

war between England and 232 

Francis of Assisi, Saint . . 121 
Franciscans . . . 121, 152, 205 

French revolution . . 249 
Friars — 

attitude toward education 277 

coming of . . . . 168 

Missionary, efforts of 149 

opposed 279 

organization of . ... 120 

repress the people .... 263 

resist English 236 

Funston, General . . 305 

Galleons, capture of . 175 

Gallinato Juan . 153 

Gama, Vasco da 65 

Geographical discoveries . 61-87 

Germany about 1400 ... 46 

Gibbon, Edward 42 

Gil, Padre 283 

Goiti, Mertin de 133 

Gomez, Father 280 

Gonzaga, Don Eugracio . . 298 

Goyti 127 

Guam 214, 308 

Guzman Don Francisco TeHo 

de 152 



Hai-tan 99 

Haiti discovered . 68 

Hamalbar 80 

Hari 102 

Health, Bureau of Public 312 

Henry, Prince . 61 

Herrada, Friar Martin 130 
flindus — 

in the Philippines . 92 

Malays and 36 

Hispaniola discovered . . 68 

Historical materials, recent 19 
History . . .12, 15 

Holy Child of Cebu . 129 

Homonh6n . . 78 

Hospitals . . . 205 

Horses 107 

Ibanag dialect . . . . 35 

Ibilao . . 34 

Tde, Henry C. . . 308 

Idols among the Filipinos . 105 
Igorrote provinces . . 244 

Igorrotes . . .34 

Ilocano . 35 

Iloilo . 172, 262 

Ilongotes 34 

India . . 36, 56, 61, 66 

Indies, Dutch expedition to 189 

Indies, West 

Instruction, Department of 
Interior, Department of . . 
Instruction in English . . 
Insular Government 
Internal Revenue, Bureau of 
Inquisition . . . 
Islands, naming of 
It Coan .... 
Ita . . . 
Italy — 

about 1400 . 
lyeydsu . ... 

122, 212 

. 118 

. 25 

. 46 



Japan — 

about 1400 67 

development of . .9 

Japanese colony . . . 185 

Jesuits — 

activity of . . . . 226 

arrival of ... . 151 

a source of historical in- 
formation . 17 
expulsion of . . 238 
increase in wealth . 237 
organized . . . . 123 
return of ... . 274 

John I of Portugal .... 61 

Jolo — 

conquest of 
forts destroyed at 
treaty with sultan of 

Jomonj61 . . 

Judicial system 

Justice, Bureau of 

Kaan, the Great 






Laboratories, Government . 312 

Lacandola, Raja . . . 133 
Ladrone Islands — 

colonized 213 

depopulation of . . . 215 

discovered . 76 

visited by Dampier . 21 

Lands, Bureau of Public . 312 

Language, development of 49 

Languages of the Malayans 90 

Laon 105 

Lara, Don Sabiano Mau- 

reque de 210 

La-Sande, Dr. Francisco . 144 

Las Casas 

Guido de 

72, 111 
. 164 




Laws of the Indies . 123 

Lawton, General . . 301, 307 

Ledesma, Bartolom^ de 162 

Legarda, Hon. Benito . 310 

Legaspi . . 126, 137 
Leyte, religious revolt at . 206 

Liga Filipina . 280 

Lima, Pablo de . 162 

Limahong 140 

Limasana . 78 

Loaisa, Jofre de 16, 115 

Lobo, Sabastian 203 

Loyola, Ignatius . 123 

Lukban, General . 309 

Luna, Antonio de . . 296 

Luis, Don . . . . 151 

Luther, Martin .... 74, 122 

Luzon, conquest of . .136 

Luzuriaga, Hon. Jos6 . . . 310 

Mabini, Don Apolinario . 298 
MacArthur, General 301, 308 

Madeira Islands . . .62 
Magellan . 16, 74, 81, 114 

Magellan, Straits of 75 

Maharlica . . . 103 

Maine, destruction of the 292 

Malaspina, Captain 245 

Malay Archipelago about 

1400 . . . 59 

Malayo-Polynesian speech 90 

Malayan peoples 31, 32, 35, 90 

Malays, Mohammedan 106 

Malays and Hindus 36 

Malolos campaign . . 299 

Malvar, General 309 

Manchus. . 57 

Mandaya . . 34 

Manguianes ... 33 

Manobo . . . 34 

Manila — 

about 1600. . 177 

attacked by Chinese . 140 

battle of . . 298 

capture of ...... . 294 

Manila — Continued 

Chinese in . 180 
decline of . 185 
earthquake at .. 155 
founded . 135 
importance of 173 
improvements in 218 
opened to trade . 259 
taken by the English 235 
taken by the Spanish 133 
Manila Normal School 276 
March, Major . 304 
Mariveles, Dutch fleet cap- 
tured at 192 
Masonry 280 
Maximilian . 73 
May-nila. . . 133 
Mediaeval period . 42 
Mendoza, viceroy of Mexico 109 
Mexico . . . . 73, 253 
Mincopies . . 31 
Mindoro, pirates of 132 
Mindanao — 

early history of 18 

people of . . . 34 

Spanish settlements on 266 

Ming dynasty 57 

Mining, Bureau of . 312 

Missionary, the Spanish 123 

Mogul, Great 50 

Mohammed 37 

Mohammedans . 47 

Moluccas abandoned 208 

Monasticism, rise of 119 

Mongols, Tartar 54 

Morga, Antonio de . 17, 20 

Moro forts destroyed . 270 

Moro Malays, trade with 99 
Moro pirates — 

activity of . 207 

first expedition against 132 

in 1771 240 

increase of ... 228 

ofTawiTawi, . 220 

rise of 153 




Moros of Jolo, attacked . . 146 
Moros — 

Corcuera's expedition 

against 198 

origin of name . ... 41 

Morones, Juan de .... 162 

Moses, Prof. Bernard . 308, 315 

Mota, Captain Lorenzo de la 163 

Municipal governments . . 265 

Museum, Philippine ... 313 

Napoleon 1 251 

Natives under Spanish rule 110 
Navarrete, Father Fernan- 
dez 18 

Navigator, the 61 

Navy established ... . 245 

Negritos 25, 98 

Negros, occupation of . . . 301 

Netherlands independent . 188 

Newspapers 273 

Non-Christian Tribes, Bu- 
reau of 312 

Normal School, Manila 276 

Northern route discovered . 131 

Nueva Caceres, foimded . . 146 

Nueva Segovia .... 147, 172 

Nueva Caceres 172 

Nueva Vergara 268 

Obando, Marquis of 
Orang benua . . . 
Orang laut .... 
Orinoco River . . . 
Ortega, Don Joaquin 
Oscariz, Don Mariano 
Otis, General . . . 
Oyanguran, Don Jos6 

Pacific Ocean discovered 


Pampangas, revolt of . . 


Pangasinian . . . 



Pardo de Tavera, Dr. Joa- 
quin 22, 92, 192, 280, 310 
Pelews . . . . 224, 253 
Pelew Islands . . . . 117 
Peru, conquest of . .73 
Philip the Handsome 73 
Philippine civil commission 308 
Philippine Islands discov- 
ered 78 

Philippines — 
America and . . . 287-320 
a subject for historical 

study . . 9-24 

American ideas about 295 

as a Spanish colony . . . 108 

Chinese in the 97 

coming of the Spaniards . 40 
development of ... . 9 
during the period of Euro- 
pean revolution. . 231-258 
expedition to . 115, 117, 126 
first archbishop in . . . 152 
historical accounts of . 15 
Inquisition in . . . 212 

Jesuits expelled from . 239 
navy established in 245 

peoples of ... . 25-42 
political decline of 212 

rebellions in . . . 254 

returned to Spain . 236 

separated from Mexico . 253 
Spanish occupation of . . 16 
threatened by Chinese . 210 
under the English. . 234 

visited by Dampier ... 21 
Philosophy of the eighteenth 

century, new . . . 231 
Pigafetta, Antonio .... 16 
Pilar, Gregorio del . . 303 

Pineda, Don Antonio . . 245 
Pintados, Islas de los . . 131 
Piracy . . . 196, 228, 246, 271 
Pirates . 132, 153, 220, 240, 268 

Pizarro 73 

Polistas 168 




Polo, Marco 54 

Poniente, Islas del ... . 79 

Portuguese colonies . 147, 195 
Portuguese discover Eastern 

passage . . . 61 

Posts, Bureau of . . 312 

Press, influence of . 273 

Primo de Rivera, General 285 

Printing, Bureau of . 313 

Prisons . .... 312 

Progress and revolution . . 259 

Pueblo 262 



RebeUion of 1896 . 


Recollects .... 




Regidor, Don Antonio 


Religion of the Filipinos . 


Renaissance . 


Repartimentos .... 

. Ill 


. 204 

Retana, W. E 


Revenues and Expenditures 313 
Revolt of 1841 . . . 263 

Revolution ... 249 
Rizal y Mercado, Dr. Jos6, 

17, 280, 284 
Rojo, Don Manuel . . 229 
Ronquillo, Don Gonzalo de, 

146, 164 
Robertson, J. A 22 

Saavedra, Don Alvaro de 16, 116 
Salazar, Domingo de . 168 

Salamanca, Juan Cerezo de . 196 
Salcedo, Don Diego de 212 

Salcedo, Juan de . 132 

Samal pirates . . 268 

Samal ports destroyed . 269 
Sarnar discovered . 78 

San Andres, orphanage of 170 
San Augustin, Fr. Caspar de 17 
Sanchez, Alonso . . . 149 

San Augustin, Padre . .100 


Sanchez, Padre Alonzo . . 168 

Sandico, Don Teodoro . . 298 

Sangleyes 184 

San Juan de Dios hospital . 120 

Sarangani 118 

Santa Potenciana . 170 

Santibanez Ignacio .... 152 

Santo Nino 129 

Sanvitores Padre Diego 

Luis de . . 213 

Sedeno, Padre Antonio 168 

Segovia, Nueva .... 172 

Seljuks 47 

Schwan, General 305 

School, Manila Normal . . 276 

Schools 169, 274, 314 

Siam, treaty with .... 218 

Sierra, Don Juan . . . . 218 

Signal Service 312 

Silonga ' . . . 151 

SUva, Juan de 192 

Sioco 141 

Slavery 63,103 

Smith, Gen. James .... 301 

Soliman, Raja 133 

Sonnerat, M 21 

Soutli America, rebellion in 253 

Spaniards 171, 256 

Spain — 

colonial policy of ... 113 

decline of 252 

economic policy of . . . 220 

war with United States . 292 
Spanish — 
found a post at Zambo- 

anga 196 

increase in population . . 276 

settle Mindanao . . . 266 

take Moro city of Manila 133 

Spanish and Portuguese . 177 

Spanish attitude toward 

education ... . 277 
Spanish expedition to Bor- 
neo 145 

Spanish government ... 163 






Spanish occupation . . 


Urbistondo, Governor . . . 


Spanish misrule ended 


Ufdaneta, Andres de 100, 115 


Spanisli rule estabhshed 156 

, 165 

Spanish soldier and the 

Van Noort . . 


Spanish missionary 


Vargas, Don Jos6 Basco de 


Spilbergen, Admiral 


Velarde, Father Murillo 


Statistics, Bureau of 




Sual opened to trade 


Vespucci, Amerigo . . . 




Vera, Dr. Santiago de . 148 


Sulu . . . 


Vidal, Montero y . . 


Swingli . . 


Vigan ... 


Taft, William H. 


Villalobos, Lopez de. . 16 


Tag&log language . 


Volcanic eruptions 


TagMog people . 


Tagal, Moro pirate 


Weather Bureau . 




Wellington . . 


Tamerlane . . 


Weyler, Governor-General 


Tartar Mongols 


Wheaton, General 




Wittert, Admiral 


Tawi Tawi, pirates of 


Wolfe, General . 




Worcester, Dean C. 


Temate, taken by Spanish . 


Worms, Diet at. . 


Tierra del Fuego 


Wright, Luke E. . 




Writing, systems of . . 


Tobacco industry 


Writings, early Filipino 


Tondo, District of 


Torre, Don Carlos de la . 


Xavier, Saint Francis . . 


Torre, Don Francisco de la. 


Torre, Hernando de la 


Young, General. . . . 




Yusef . 


Totanes, Padre 


Trade — 

Zamal . . . . 


restricted . 
routes of . 
Venetian monopoly of . 
with the East . 


Zamboanga — 

abandoned . . 18 
opened to trade . . 
refounded . . 


Treasurer,' Insular . 
Trias, Gen. Mariano 



Spanish post at . . 


Turks . . ... 


Zamora, Father 


United States — 

Zulueta, M. . 


development of 


Zuniga, Father Joaquin Mar- 

war with Spain 


tinez de 


Best Books for 
Philippine Schools 

Baldwin Ptimer — Tagfalog Edition 

Gibbs's Natural Number Primer 

Gibbs's Insular Primer 

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